Difference between direct fabric programming and overlay

Let's look at how the standard switch or router performs a frame forwarding. For our understanding we will look at a generic layer 3 switch (1G or 10G) from any vendor:

An Ethernet switch is a very simple device, it's just a silicon chipset, which is from one of the large silicon manufacturers such as Broadcom or Marvel, a CPU (which is either a x86 or a low power ARM-based processor), which runs the vendor's software (vendor here is referring to switch vendor such as Cisco or Juniper or Arista, and so on.):

The switch silicon is like a comparison table. It maps the frames to ports. ...

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