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# Chapter 2. A Scientific Calculator

R is at heart a supercharged scientific calculator, so it has a fairly comprehensive set of mathematical capabilities built in. This chapter will take you through the arithmetic operators, common mathematical functions, and relational operators, and show you how to assign a value to a variable.

# Chapter Goals

After reading this chapter, you should:

• Be able to use R as a scientific calculator
• Be able to assign a variable and view its value
• Be able to use infinite and missing values
• Understand what logical vectors are and how to manipulate them

# Mathematical Operations and Vectors

The `+` operator performs addition, but it has a special trick: as well as adding two numbers together, you can use it to add two vectors. A vector is an ordered set of values. Vectors are tremendously important in statistics, since you will usually want to analyze a whole dataset rather than just one piece of data.

The colon operator, `:`, which you have seen already, creates a sequence from one number to the next, and the `c` function concatenates values, in this case to create vectors (concatenate is a Latin word meaning “connect together in a chain”).

Variable names are case sensitive in R, so we need to be a bit careful in this next example. The `C` function does something completely different to `c`:

``1`:`5` `+` `6`:`10`         `#look, no loops!``
`##   7  9 11 13 15`
`c`(``1``,` `3``,` `6``,` `10``,` `15``)` `+` c`(``0``,` `1``,` `3``,` `6``,` `10``)``
`##   1  4  9 16 25`

### Tip

The colon operator and the `c` function are used almost everywhere in R code, ...

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