R is at heart a supercharged scientific calculator, so it has a fairly comprehensive set of mathematical capabilities built in. This chapter will take you through the arithmetic operators, common mathematical functions, and relational operators, and show you how to assign a value to a variable.

After reading this chapter, you should:

- Be able to use R as a scientific calculator
- Be able to assign a variable and view its value
- Be able to use infinite and missing values
- Understand what logical vectors are and how to manipulate them

The `+`

operator performs addition, but it has a special trick: as well as adding two numbers together, you can use it to add two vectors. A *vector* is an ordered set of values. Vectors are tremendously important in statistics, since you will usually want to analyze a whole dataset rather than just one piece of data.

The colon operator, `:`

, which you have seen already, creates a sequence from one number to the next, and the `c`

function concatenates values, in this case to create vectors (*concatenate* is a Latin word meaning “connect together in a chain”).

Variable names are case sensitive in R, so we need to be a bit careful in this next example. The `C`

function does something completely different to `c`

:^{[6]}

`1`

:`5`

`+`

`6`

:`10`

`#look, no loops!`

## [1] 7 9 11 13 15

c`(`

`1`

`,`

`3`

`,`

`6`

`,`

`10`

`,`

`15`

`)`

`+`

c`(`

`0`

`,`

`1`

`,`

`3`

`,`

`6`

`,`

`10`

`)`

## [1] 1 4 9 16 25

The colon operator and the `c`

function are used almost everywhere in R code, ...

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