XML can be used like an extremely basic database. Since the early days of computer operating systems, data has been stored in files as tables, like the venerable /etc/passwd file:
nobody:*:-2:-2:Unprivileged User:/nohome:/noshell root:*:0:0:System Administrator:/var/root:/bin/tcsh daemon:*:1:1:System Services:/var/root:/noshell smmsp:*:25:25:Sendmail User:/private/etc/mail:/noshell
Data like this isn’t too hard to parse, but it has problems, too. Certain characters aren’t allowed. Each record lives on a separate line, so data can’t span lines. A syntax error is easy to create and may be difficult to locate. XML’s explicit markup gives it natural immunity to these types of problems.
If you are writing a program that reads or saves data to a file, there are good reasons to go with XML. Parsers have been written to parse it already, so all you need to do is link to a library and use one of several easy interfaces: SAX, DOM, or XPath. Syntax errors are easy to catch, and that too is automated by the parser. Technologies like DTDs and Schema even check the structure and contents of elements for you, to ensure completeness and ordering.
A dictionary is a simple one-to-one mapping of properties to values. A property has a name, or key, which is a unique identifier. A dictionary is kind of like a table with two columns. It’s a simple but very effective way to serialize data.
In the Macintosh OS X operating system, Apple selected XML as its format for preference ...