Chapter 17

Automatic Lens Improvement Programs

Many of the methods of lens design outlined in this book were the only procedures available up to about 1956, when electronic computers that had sufficient speed to be used for lens design became available. Many people in several countries then began work on the problem of how to use a high-speed computer, not only to trace sufficient rays to evaluate a system but to make changes in the system so as to improve the image quality. A brief history of this evolution is presented in Section 17.7. It is our purpose in this chapter to indicate how such a computer program is organized and how some “boundary conditions” are handled.1,2

When using this type of program, a starting system is entered into the program, ...

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