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Light and Lens, 3rd Edition

Book Description

The new edition of this pioneering book allows students to acquire an essential foundation for digital photography.

Fully updated, it clearly and concisely covers the fundamental concepts of imagemaking, how to use digital technology to create compelling images, and how to output and preserve images in the digital world. Exploring history, methods, and theory, this text offers classroom-tested assignments and exercises from leading photographic educators, approaches for analyzing, discussing, and writing about photographs, and tools to critically explore and make images with increased visual literacy.

New to this edition:

  • New larger page format
  • Revised and renewed to reflect technological advances
  • Expanded coverage of smartphone/mobile photography
  • Extended coverage of the careers section
  • More than 100 new images

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Artist Contributors
  9. Chapter 1—Why We Make Pictures
    1. A Concise History of Visual Ideas
    2. Not Just Pictures but Photographs
    3. The Grammar of Photography
    4. The Evolution of Photographic Imaging
    5. Full Circle: Some Things Remain the Same
    6. Determining Meaning
    7. Before Photoshop
      1. Combination Printing
      2. The Advent of Straight Photography
      3. The Pictorialists
      4. The Photo-Secessionists
      5. The Arrival of Straight Photography
    8. Modernistic Approaches
      1. Documentary/Photojournalistic Approach
      2. Straight Photography and Previsualization
      3. Group f/64 and the Zone System
      4. Postvisualization
      5. Social Landscape and the Snapshot Aesthetic
      6. The Alternative Scene
      7. The Rise of Color Photography
      8. Postmodernism
    9. Electronic Imaging: New Ways of Thinking
    10. The Digital Imaging Transformation
    11. New Media
    12. Questions Regarding Photo-Based Imagemaking
    13. References
  10. Chapter 2—Design: Visual Foundations
    1. Learning to See: Communicating with Design
    2. Beginner’s Mind
    3. The Design Process
    4. The Nature of Photography: Subtractive Composition
    5. Departure Point
    6. Attention Span and Staying Power
    7. Photography’s Privilege
    8. The Language of Vision
    9. Photography’s Native Characteristics
    10. Design Principles
      1. Unity and Variety
      2. Emphasis
      3. Scale and Proportion
      4. The Golden Mean: The Rule of Thirds
      5. Balance
    11. Visual Elements
      1. Line
      2. Shape
      3. Space
      4. Texture
      5. Pattern
      6. Symbolism
      7. General Symbol Categories
      8. Shapes and Their General Symbolic Associations
      9. Color Symbolism
      10. Common Symbols and Some Potential Associations
    12. References
  11. Chapter 3—Image Capture: Cameras, Lenses, and Scanners
    1. The Role of a Camera
    2. What Is a Camera?
    3. How a Camera Imaging System Works
    4. Digital Cameras
      1. Digital Observations
      2. Image Sensors: CCD and CMOS
      3. Color Filter Array: Bayer Filter Mosaic
      4. Pixels
      5. Image Resolution
      6. PPI: Pixels per Square Inch and Digital Camera Resolution
      7. DPI: Dots per Square Inch and Printer Resolution
      8. The Differences between PPI and DPI
      9. Visual Acuity and 300 DPI
    5. Types of Digital Cameras
      1. Compact Digital Cameras
      2. Digital Single-Lens Reflex Cameras
      3. Single-Lens Translucent Cameras
      4. Mirrorless Cameras
      5. Smartphone Cameras
      6. Other Camera Types
    6. Choosing a Camera
    7. Camera File Formats
      1. Image Compression Algorithms: Lossless and Lossy
      2. Major Image File Formats
      3. JPEG
      4. HEIC
      5. TIFF
      6. RAW and Post-Processing
      7. DNG
      8. Opening Files
    8. The Lens System and Exposure
      1. Aperture
      2. Aperture/f-Stop Control/Shutter Control/ Exposure Modes
      3. Depth of Field
      4. Lens Focal Length
      5. Focusing the Image
      6. Autofocus Modes
      7. Types of Lenses
      8. Zoom Lens
      9. Normal Lens
      10. Wide-Angle Lens
      11. Telephoto Lens
      12. Special-Use Lenses
      13. Shutters: Rolling and Global
      14. Shutter Speed Control
      15. Shutter Lag
      16. Shutter Modes
      17. Determining Exposure
    9. Digital Camera Features
      1. Resolution and Print Size
      2. Monitor
      3. Monitor Playback Mode and Histogram
      4. Metadata/EXIF
      5. Optical and Digital Zoom
      6. Digital ISO/Sensitivity
      7. Digital Aberrations: Noise, Banding, Blooming, and Spots
      8. White Balance
      9. Metering Modes
      10. Aspect Modes
      11. Color Modes
      12. Image Enhancement and Scene Modes
      13. Special Effect Modes
      14. Video Mode
      15. Sharpening Mode
      16. Guide or Help Mode
      17. Noise Reduction
      18. Image Stabilization
      19. Flash
      20. Memory Buffer
      21. Removable Camera Memory Storage
      22. Firmware
      23. Software: You Press the Button and the Camera Does the Rest
      24. Battery
      25. Battery Choices
      26. Battery Care in Cold Conditions
    10. Camera, Lens, Monitor, and Sensor Care
      1. Protection against the Elements
    11. Scanners
      1. Flatbed and Film Scanners
      2. Drum Scanners
      3. Scanning Guidelines
      4. Scanning Steps
    12. Frame Grabber
      1. Effects on Photojournalists and Event Photographers
    13. Storing Digital Images
      1. Digital Asset Management (DAM)
      2. Storage Media for Final Image Files
      3. Compact (CD), Digital Versatile (DVD) Discs
      4. Mechanical Storage
      5. Internal Hard Disk Drives
      6. External Hard Disk Drives
      7. Solid-State Storage: Hard Drives, USB Drives, Jump Drives, and Flash Memory Media
      8. Image Transfer
      9. Cloud Storage
    14. Living Images: Authorship, Access, and the World’s Largest Picture Book
  12. Chapter 4—Exposure and Filters
    1. Exposure Basics
      1. Camera Light Meters Are 18 Percent Gray Contrast
      2. Reflective and Incident Light
      3. How a Light Meter Works
      4. How a Histogram Works
      5. Using a Gray Card
      6. Camera Metering Programs
      7. Using a Camera Monitor
      8. Electronic Viewfinder (EVF)
      9. How a Meter Gets Deceived
      10. Exposure Bracketing
      11. Exposure Compensation
      12. Manual Override
      13. Handheld Meters
      14. Brightness Range
      15. Exposing to the Right
      16. High Dynamic Range (HDR) Imaging
      17. Basic Light Reading Methods
      18. Average Daylight
      19. Brilliant Sunlight
      20. Diffused Light
      21. Dim Light
      22. Contrast Control/Tone Compensation
      23. Light Metering Techniques
      24. Electronic Flash and Basic Fill Flash
      25. Red Eye
      26. Unusual Lighting Conditions
      27. Subject in Shadow
      28. Subject in Bright Light
      29. Zoom Exposure
      30. Averaging Incident and Reflect Exposures
      31. Scene Mode Exposures
      32. Reciprocity Law
      33. Long Exposures and Digital Noise
    2. Filtering the Light
      1. Our Sun: A Continuous White Light Spectrum
      2. Color Temperature and the Kelvin Scale
      3. The Color of Light
      4. White Balance
      5. Camera Color Modes
      6. Color Saturation Control
      7. Hue Adjustment/RGB Color Mixing
      8. Why a Color May Not Reproduce Correctly
      9. Lens Filters
      10. How Filters Work
      11. Filter Factor
      12. Neutral Density Filters
      13. Controlling Reflections: Polarized and Unpolarized Light
      14. What a Polarizing Filter Can Do
      15. Using a Polarizer
      16. Linear and Circular Polarizers
      17. Ultraviolet, Skylight, and Haze Filters
      18. Special Effects Filters
      19. Homemade Color and Diffusion Filters
      20. Digital Filters and Plugins
      21. Fluorescent and Other Gas-Filled Lights
      22. High-Intensity Discharge Lamps/Mercury and Sodium Vapor Sources
  13. Chapter 5—Interpreting Light
    1. Natural Light
      1. The Thingness of Light
      2. Good Light
      3. Light and the Camera
    2. The Time of Day/Types of Light
      1. The Cycle of Light and Its Basic Characteristics
      2. Before Sunrise
      3. Morning
      4. The Golden Hour
      5. Midday
      6. Afternoon
      7. Sunset
      8. Twilight/Evening
      9. Night
      10. Moonlight
      11. The Seasons
      12. The Weather and Atmospheric Conditions
      13. Fog and Mist
      14. Rain
      15. Snow
      16. Snow Effects
      17. Dust
      18. Heat and Fire
      19. Beach and Desert
    3. Artificial Light
      1. Add a Light
      2. The Size of the Main or Key Light
      3. The Placement of the Light
      4. Contrast/Brightness Range
    4. Basic Lighting Methods
      1. Front Light
      2. Side Light
      3. High Side Light
      4. Low Side Light
      5. Top Light
      6. Back Light
      7. Under Light
    5. Lighting Accessories
      1. Barn Doors
      2. Diffuser
      3. Gels
      4. Reflector Card
      5. Seamless Paper Backdrops
      6. Snoot
      7. Studio Strobes
    6. References
  14. Chapter 6—Observation: Eyes Wide Open
    1. How We See
      1. Literacy
      2. Learning to Look
      3. The Difference between Artistic and Scientific Methods
      4. Visual Literacy and Decision Making
    2. Why We Make and Respond to Specific Images
      1. Victor Lowenfeld’s Research
      2. Visual-Realists as Imagemakers
      3. Visual-Realist Photographic Working Methods
      4. Haptic-Expressionist Imagemakers
      5. Haptic–Expressionist Photographic Working Methods
    3. The Effects of Digital Imaging
      1. Photography’s Effect on the Arts
      2. Pushing Your Boundaries
    4. Aesthetic Keys for Color and Composition
      1. The Color Key
      2. The Composition Key
      3. Recognizing the Keys
    5. Figure-Ground Relationships
      1. The Importance of Figure-Ground Relationships
  15. Chapter 7—Time, Space, Imagination, and the Camera
    1. In Search of Time
    2. The Perception of Time
    3. Controlling Camera Time
      1. Exploring Shutter Speeds: The Decisive Moment
      2. Extending the Action/Deconstructing The Decisive Moment
      3. Stopping the Action
      4. Smartphone Cameras: Controlling Shutter Speeds
      5. Stopping Action with Electronic Flash
      6. Blur and Out-of-Focus Images
      7. Motion Blur Filters
      8. Lensbaby: Bokeh/Selective Focus
      9. The Pan Shot
      10. Equipment Movement
      11. Free-Form Camera Movement
      12. Flash and Slow Shutter Speed
      13. Extended Time Exposures
      14. Drawing with Light
      15. Projection
      16. Multiple Images
      17. Sandwiching/Overlapping Transparencies
      18. Rephotography
      19. Post Documentary Approach
      20. Post-Camera Visualization
      21. Sequences
      22. Using a Grid
      23. Many Make One
      24. Contact Sheet Sequence
      25. Joiners
      26. Slices of Time
      27. Photomontage and Compound Images
      28. Photographic Collage
      29. Three-Dimensional Images: Physical and Virtual
      30. Image-Based Installations
      31. Public Art
      32. Social Media
      33. Recomposing Reality
    4. Timeline Animation
      1. Getting Started: Making Your Timeline Animation
    5. References
  16. Chapter 8—Digital Studio: The Virtual and the Material Worlds
    1. The Megapixel Myth
      1. Pixel Size Matters
    2. Displaying the Image File: Screen or Print
      1. Pixels per Inch (PPI) and Dots per Inch (DPI)
      2. Sizing a Digital File
      3. Resampling or Interpolation
    3. Preserving Original Capture
      1. Working with RAW File Formats
    4. True Resolution in the Physical World
      1. Default Image Preview Confusion
      2. Digital Post-Capture Software Programs
      3. The Image Window
      4. The Bottom Line: Best Setting to Get the Desired Results
    5. Making Photographic-Quality Prints
      1. Inkjet Printers: Converting DPI to Dots
      2. Droplet Size: Picoliters
      3. Paper: Uncoated and Coated
      4. Inks: Dye and Pigment Based
      5. Print Permanence
      6. Printing Systems and Output Concerns
    6. Image Correction and the Computer Workstation
      1. The Color Monitor
      2. How Monitors Display Color
      3. Bit Color
      4. Comparing 8-Bit and 16-Bit Modes
      5. Color Management (ICC Profiles)
      6. Controlling Color Space: Profiles and Lights
      7. WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get
      8. Lighting in the Work Space
      9. Digital Colors: CMYK and RGB
      10. Digital Memory
    7. Software and Imaging Applications
      1. Raster/Bitmapped Software
      2. Vector Graphics Software
    8. Basic Digital Imaging Categories and Tools
      1. Top Main Menu Options
      2. Cut/Copy and Paste Functions
      3. Scale and Distort Functions
      4. Digital Filter Function
      5. Toolbar Icons for Additional Photo Editing
    9. Common Toolbar Icons from Photoshop
      1. Additional Toolbar Tools
      2. Additional Photoshop Tools
    10. The Computer as a Multimedia Stage: Moving Images
    11. The Internet and the World Wide Web
      1. Information Sharing: Search Engines and Weblogs
      2. Digital Galleries
    12. The Digital Future
    13. References
  17. Chapter 9—Presentation and Preservation
    1. Digital Retouching and Repair
    2. Archival Presentation
      1. Presentation Materials
      2. Mat Board Selection
      3. Window Mat
      4. Dry and Wet Mounting
      5. The Dry-Mounting Process
      6. Cold Mounting
      7. Floating a Print
      8. Frames
      9. Unusual Frames and Presentations
      10. Portfolios
      11. Books: Print on Demand
      12. Images on a Screen: Web Sharing
      13. Website Design/HTML
    3. Factors Affecting Print Preservation
      1. Factors Affecting Print Stability
      2. Color Print Life Span
      3. Print Display Environment
      4. Storage Environment
    4. Digital Archives
      1. Long-Term Storage and Migrating Digital Archives
      2. Transferring Film-Based Images to a Digital Format
      3. Digital Assessment Management (DAM): Post-Production Software
    5. Digital Print Stability
      1. Dye-Based Inks
      2. Pigmented Inks
      3. Printing Media
      4. Protecting Pigment Prints
    6. Camera Copy Work
      1. Lens Selection: Macro Lens/Mode
      2. Copy Lighting
      3. Exposure
    7. Presenting Your Work
      1. Shipping
      2. Copyright of Your Own Work
      3. Where to Send Work
  18. Chapter 10—Seeing with a Camera
    1. The Framing Effect: Viewpoint
      1. Seeing Dynamically
      2. Working Methods
      3. Effectively Using Angles of View
    2. Selective Focus
    3. Contrast
      1. Complementary Colors
      2. Warm and Cool Colors
      3. Creating Color Contrast
    4. Dominant Color
      1. Be Straightforward
      2. Sustaining Compelling Composition
    5. Harmonic Color
      1. Effective Harmony
    6. Isolated Color
      1. Chance Favors the Prepared Mind
    7. Monochrome Images
      1. The Personal Nature of Monochrome
      2. Color Contamination
      3. Aerial Perspective
    8. Perspective
      1. Essential Methods of Perspective Control
      2. Converging Lines
    9. Subdued Color
      1. Operational Procedures
    10. Highlights and Shadows
    11. Attraction and Repulsion
      1. Surmounting Preconceptions
    12. Counterpoints and Opposites
  19. Chapter 11—Solutions: Thinking and Writing about Images
    1. Thinking Structure: A Process for Discovery and Problem Solving
    2. A Thinking Model
      1. Stage 1: Thinking Time
      2. Stage 2: Search for Form
      3. Stage 3: Definition and Approach
      4. Stage 4: Bringing It Together
      5. Stage 5: Operations Review
      6. Stage 6: Evaluation
    3. The Photograph as a Matrix
    4. Size Matters
    5. Communicating Culural Knowledge
    6. The Image Experience: Photographing Meaning is Changeable
    7. Writing about Images
      1. Writing an Artist’s Statement
    8. Essentials of Image Discussion
    9. John Cage’s Rules
    10. References
  20. Chapter 12—Imagemaker on Assignment
    1. Making Portraits: Who Am I and Who Are You?
      1. Self-Portrait Research
      2. Self-Portraits
      3. Portrait of Another Person
      4. Environmental Portrait
    2. Fauxtography: Photography’s Subjective Nature
      1. Truthiness and Wikiality
    3. Picturing Social Identity
      1. Depicting Social Customs
      2. Who Can Represent Us?
    4. Interior Experience: The Significance of Daily Life
      1. Philosophical Belief: Optimism, Pessimism, and Existentialism
      2. Psychological Drama
      3. Social Issues
    5. Fabrication for the Camera: Directorial Mode
      1. The Social Landscape
    6. Still Life
      1. Still-Life Deliberations
    7. The Human Form
    8. The Screen: Another Picture Reality
      1. Alternative Approaches
    9. Text and Images
    10. Artists’ Books and Albums
    11. Self-Assignment: Creation and Evaluation
      1. Evaluation Guide—Before Making Images
      2. Guide to Evaluation—After Photographing
  21. Addendum 1 Safety: Protecting Yourself and Your Digital Imaging Equipment
    1. Ergonomic Workstations
    2. Monitor Emissions: ELF/VLF
    3. Eyestrain
    4. Proper Posture/Lower Back Problems
    5. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    6. Taking Breaks
    7. Neutral Body Positioning
    8. Change Your Working Position
  22. Addendum 2 Careers
    1. The Working Photographer
    2. Getting Started
    3. References
  23. Index