CHAPTER 21Troubleshooting Linux


In any complex operating system, lots of things can go wrong. You can fail to save a file because you are out of disk space. An application can crash because the system is out of memory. The system can fail to boot up properly for, well, lots of different reasons.

In Linux, the dedication to openness, and the focus on making the software run with maximum efficiency, has led to an amazing number of tools that you can use to troubleshoot every imaginable problem. In fact, if the operating system isn't working as you would like, you even have the ultimate opportunity to rewrite the code yourself (although I don't cover how to do that here).

This chapter takes on some of the most common problems that you can run into on a Linux system, and it describes the tools and procedures that you can use to overcome those problems. Topics are broken down by areas of troubleshooting, such as the boot process, software packages, networking, memory issues, and rescue mode.

Boot-Up Troubleshooting

Before you can begin troubleshooting a running Linux system itself, that system needs to boot up. For a Linux system to boot up, a series of things has to happen. A Linux system installed directly on a PC architecture computer goes through the following steps to ...

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