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Linux Device Drivers, Second Edition by Alessandro Rubini, Jonathan Corbet

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Implementing a Handler

So far, we’ve learned to register an interrupt handler, but not to write one. Actually, there’s nothing unusual about a handler—it’s ordinary C code.

The only peculiarity is that a handler runs at interrupt time and therefore suffers some restrictions on what it can do. These restrictions are the same as those we saw with task queues. A handler can’t transfer data to or from user space, because it doesn’t execute in the context of a process. Handlers also cannot do anything that would sleep, such as calling sleep_on, allocating memory with anything other than GFP_ATOMIC, or locking a semaphore. Finally, handlers cannot call schedule.

The role of an interrupt handler is to give feedback to its device about interrupt reception and to read or write data according to the meaning of the interrupt being serviced. The first step usually consists of clearing a bit on the interface board; most hardware devices won’t generate other interrupts until their “interrupt-pending” bit has been cleared. Some devices don’t require this step because they don’t have an “interrupt-pending” bit; such devices are a minority, although the parallel port is one of them. For that reason, short does not have to clear such a bit.

A typical task for an interrupt handler is awakening processes sleeping on the device if the interrupt signals the event they’re waiting for, such as the arrival of new data.

To stick with the frame grabber example, a process could acquire a sequence of images by continuously reading the device; the read call blocks before reading each frame, while the interrupt handler awakens the process as soon as each new frame arrives. This assumes that the grabber interrupts the processor to signal successful arrival of each new frame.

The programmer should be careful to write a routine that executes in a minimum of time, independent of its being a fast or slow handler. If a long computation needs to be performed, the best approach is to use a tasklet or task queue to schedule computation at a safer time (see Section 6.4 in Chapter 6).

Our sample code in short makes use of the interrupt to call do_gettimeofday and print the current time to a page-sized circular buffer. It then awakens any reading process because there is now data available to be read.

void short_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id, struct pt_regs *regs)
    struct timeval tv;
    int written;


    /* Write a 16-byte record. Assume PAGE_SIZE is a multiple of 16 */
    written = sprintf((char *)short_head,"%08u.%06u\n",
                      (int)(tv.tv_sec % 100000000), (int)(tv.tv_usec));
    short_incr_bp(&short_head, written);
    wake_up_interruptible(&short_queue); /* wake any reading process */

This code, though simple, represents the typical job of an interrupt handler. It, in turn, calls short_incr_bp, which is defined as follows:

static inline void short_incr_bp(volatile unsigned long *index, 
                                 int delta)
    unsigned long new = *index + delta;
    barrier ();  /* Don't optimize these two together */
    *index = (new >= (short_buffer + PAGE_SIZE)) ? short_buffer : new;

This function has been carefully written to wrap a pointer into the circular buffer without ever exposing an incorrect value. By assigning only the final value and placing a barrier to keep the compiler from optimizing things, it is possible to manipulate the circular buffer pointers safely without locks.

The device file used to read the buffer being filled at interrupt time is /dev/shortint. This device special file, together with /dev/shortprint, wasn’t introduced in Chapter 8, because its use is specific to interrupt handling. The internals of /dev/shortint are specifically tailored for interrupt generation and reporting. Writing to the device generates one interrupt every other byte; reading the device gives the time when each interrupt was reported.

If you connect together pins 9 and 10 of the parallel connector, you can generate interrupts by raising the high bit of the parallel data byte. This can be accomplished by writing binary data to /dev/short0 or by writing anything to /dev/shortint.[37]

The following code implements read and write for /dev/shortint.

ssize_t short_i_read (struct file *filp, char *buf, size_t count, 
                      loff_t *f_pos)
    int count0;

    while (short_head == short_tail) {
        if (signal_pending (current))  /* a signal arrived */
          return -ERESTARTSYS; /* tell the fs layer to handle it */
        /* else, loop */
    /* count0 is the number of readable data bytes */
    count0 = short_head - short_tail;
    if (count0 < 0) /* wrapped */
        count0 = short_buffer + PAGE_SIZE - short_tail;
    if (count0 < count) count = count0;

    if (copy_to_user(buf, (char *)short_tail, count))
	return -EFAULT;
    short_incr_bp (&short_tail, count);
    return count;

ssize_t short_i_write (struct file *filp, const char *buf, size_t count,
                loff_t *f_pos)
    int written = 0, odd = *f_pos & 1;
    unsigned long address = short_base; /* output to the parallel 
                                           data latch */

    if (use_mem) {
	while (written < count)
	    writeb(0xff * ((++written + odd) & 1), address);
    } else {
	while (written < count)
	    outb(0xff * ((++written + odd) & 1), address);

    *f_pos += count;
    return written;

The other device special file, /dev/shortprint, uses the parallel port to drive a printer, and you can use it if you want to avoid soldering a wire between pin 9 and 10 of a D-25 connector. The write implementation of shortprint uses a circular buffer to store data to be printed, while the read implementation is the one just shown (so you can read the time your printer takes to eat each character).

In order to support printer operation, the interrupt handler has been slightly modified from the one just shown, adding the ability to send the next data byte to the printer if there is more data to transfer.

Using Arguments

Though short ignores them, three arguments are passed to an interrupt handler: irq, dev_id, and regs. Let’s look at the role of each.

The interrupt number (int irq) is useful as information you may print in your log messages, if any. Although it had a role in pre-2.0 kernels, when no dev_id existed, dev_id serves that role much better.

The second argument, void *dev_id, is a sort of ClientData; a void * argument is passed to request_irq, and this same pointer is then passed back as an argument to the handler when the interrupt happens.

You’ll usually pass a pointer to your device data structure in dev_id, so a driver that manages several instances of the same device doesn’t need any extra code in the interrupt handler to find out which device is in charge of the current interrupt event. Typical use of the argument in an interrupt handler is as follows:

static void sample_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id, struct pt_regs 
    struct sample_dev *dev = dev_id;

    /* now `dev' points to the right hardware item */
    /* .... */

The typical open code associated with this handler looks like this:

static void sample_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
    struct sample_dev *dev = hwinfo + MINOR(inode->i_rdev);
    request_irq(dev->irq, sample_interrupt,
    0 /* flags */, "sample", dev /* dev_id */);
    return 0;

The last argument, struct pt_regs *regs, is rarely used. It holds a snapshot of the processor’s context before the processor entered interrupt code. The registers can be used for monitoring and debugging; they are not normally needed for regular device driver tasks.

Enabling and Disabling Interrupts

We have already seen the sti and cli functions, which can enable and disable all interrupts. Sometimes, however, it’s useful for a driver to enable and disable interrupt reporting for its own IRQ line only. The kernel offers three functions for this purpose, all declared in <asm/irq.h>:

void disable_irq(int irq);
void disable_irq_nosync(int irq);
void enable_irq(int irq);

Calling any of these functions may update the mask for the specified irq in the programmable interrupt controller (PIC), thus disabling or enabling IRQs across all processors. Calls to these functions can be nested—if disable_irq is called twice in succession, two enable_irq calls will be required before the IRQ is truly reenabled. It is possible to call these functions from an interrupt handler, but enabling your own IRQ while handling it is not usually good practice.

disable_irq will not only disable the given interrupt, but will also wait for a currently executing interrupt handler, if any, to complete. disable_irq_nosync, on the other hand, returns immediately. Thus, using the latter will be a little faster, but may leave your driver open to race conditions.

But why disable an interrupt? Sticking to the parallel port, let’s look at the plip network interface. A plip device uses the bare-bones parallel port to transfer data. Since only five bits can be read from the parallel connector, they are interpreted as four data bits and a clock/handshake signal. When the first four bits of a packet are transmitted by the initiator (the interface sending the packet), the clock line is raised, causing the receiving interface to interrupt the processor. The plip handler is then invoked to deal with newly arrived data.

After the device has been alerted, the data transfer proceeds, using the handshake line to clock new data to the receiving interface (this might not be the best implementation, but it is necessary for compatibility with other packet drivers using the parallel port). Performance would be unbearable if the receiving interface had to handle two interrupts for every byte received. The driver therefore disables the interrupt during the reception of the packet; instead, a poll-and-delay loop is used to bring in the data.

Similarly, since the handshake line from the receiver to the transmitter is used to acknowledge data reception, the transmitting interface disables its IRQ line during packet transmission.

Finally, it’s interesting to note that the SPARC and M68k implementations define both the disable_irq and enable_irq symbols as pointers rather than functions. This trick allows the kernel to assign the pointers at boot time according to the actual platform being run. The C-language semantics to use the function are the same on all Linux systems, independent of whether this trick is used or not, which helps avoid some tedious coding of conditionals.

[37] The shortint device accomplishes its task by alternately writing 0x00 and 0xff to the parallel port.

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