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Linux Firewalls by Michael Rash

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Chapter 3. TRANSPORT LAYER ATTACKS AND DEFENSE

The transport layer—layer four in the OSI Reference Model—provides data delivery, flow control, and error recovery services to end hosts on the Internet. The two primary transport layer protocols we are concerned with are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. This means that the client and server negotiate a set of parameters that define how data is transferred before any data is exchanged, and that there is a clear demarcation of the start and end of a connection. TCP transfers data between two nodes in a reliable, in-order fashion, which frees application layer protocols from having to build in this functionality themselves. ...

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