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Lithium-Ion Batteries

Book Description

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:

  • Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteries
  • Describes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separators
  • Discusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current collectors, and cases
  • Examines the assembly processes and electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries
  • Explores applications in power tools, electric vehicles, aerospace, and more

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications delivers a systematic overview of lithium-ion batteries, from physical properties to manufacturing technologies. The book also supplies valuable insight into potential growth opportunities in this exciting market.

Table of Contents

  1. Series Preface
  2. Preface
  3. Editor
  4. Contributors
  5. Chapter 1 - Introduction
    1. 1.1 History of Batteries
    2. 1.2 Some Battery Terminology
    3. 1.3 Principle of Lithium-Ion Batteries
    4. 1.4 Some Requirements for Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. 1.4.1 Requirements for Positive Electrode Materials
      2. 1.4.2 Requirements for Negative Electrode Materials
      3. 1.4.3 Requirements for Electrolytes
        1. 1.4.3.1 Requirements for Liquid Electrolytes
        2. 1.4.3.2 Requirements for All-Solid Electrolytes
        3. 1.4.3.3 Requirements for Gel Polymer Electrolytes
    5. 1.5 Some Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Batteries
    6. 1.6 About This Book
    7. References
  6. Chapter 2 - LiCoO2-Based Positive Electrode Material
    1. 2.1 Structure of LiCoO2
    2. 2.2 Preparation Methods for LiCoO2
    3. 2.3 Performance of LiCoO2
    4. 2.4 Modification of LiCoO2
      1. 2.4.1 Doping on LiCoO2
      2. 2.4.2 Coating on LiCoO2
    5. 2.5 Manufacturing Equipment for LiCoO2
    6. References
  7. Chapter 3 - LiNiO2-Based Positive Electrode Materials
    1. 3.1 Structure of LiNiO2
    2. 3.2 Preparation Methods for LiNiO2
    3. 3.3 Performance of LiNiO2
    4. 3.4 Modification of LiNiO2
      1. 3.4.1 Doping with a Single Heteroatom
      2. 3.4.2 Codoping and Multidoping with Heteroatoms
      3. 3.4.3 Coating with Inert Compounds
    5. 3.5 Manufacturing Equipment for LiNiO2
    6. References
  8. Chapter 4 - Spinel LiMn2O4-Based Positive Electrode Materials
    1. 4.1 Structure of Spinel LiMn2O4
    2. 4.2 Preparation Methods for LiMn2O4
      1. 4.2.1 Solid-State Reactions
      2. 4.2.2 Sol-Gel Methods
      3. 4.2.3 Template Methods
      4. 4.2.4 Mechanochemical Methods
      5. 4.2.5 Other Methods
    3. 4.3 Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4
    4. 4.4 Modification on LiMn2O4
      1. 4.4.1 Reduction of the Surface Area of Spinel LiMn2O4
      2. 4.4.2 Additives in Organic Electrolytes
      3. 4.4.3 Doping with Cations
      4. 4.4.4 Doping with Anions
      5. 4.4.5 Doping with Two or More Heteroatoms
      6. 4.4.6 Surface Treatment
    5. 4.5 Manufacturing Equipment for LiMn2O4 Electrodes
    6. References
  9. Chapter 5 - LiFePO4-Based Positive Electrode Materials
    1. 5.1 Characteristics of LiFePO4
    2. 5.2 Structure of LiFePO4
    3. 5.3 Preparation Methods for LiFePO4
      1. 5.3.1 Solid-State Reactions
      2. 5.3.2 Carbothermal Reduction Reactions
      3. 5.3.3 Sol-Gel Methods
      4. 5.3.4 Template Methods
      5. 5.3.5 Hydrothermal Methods
      6. 5.3.6 Other Methods
    4. 5.4 Performance of LiFePO4
    5. 5.5 Modification of LiFePO4
      1. 5.5.1 Carbon Coating on LiFePO4
      2. 5.5.2 Doping of LiFePO4
      3. 5.5.3 Nanostructured LiFePO4
      4. 5.5.4 Other Modification Methods for LiFePO4
    6. 5.6 Manufacturing Equipment for LiFePO4
    7. References
  10. Chapter 6 - Other Positive Electrode Materials
    1. 6.1 Lithium-Rich Layered Oxide (Li2MnO3–LiMO2)
      1. 6.1.1 Structures and Charge/Discharge Mechanisms of Li2MnO3 and Li2MnO3–LiMO2
      2. 6.1.2 Preparation of Li2MnO3 and Li2MnO3–LiMO2
      3. 6.1.3 Electrochemical Performance of Li2MnO3– LiMO2 and Its Modification
    2. 6.2 Phosphates
      1. 6.2.1 Structure of LiMnPO4
      2. 6.2.2 Preparation of LiMnPO4
      3. 6.2.3 Electrochemical Performance of LiMnPO4 and Its Modification
    3. 6.3 Silicates
      1. 6.3.1 Structure, Synthesis, and Performance of Li2FeSiO4
        1. 6.3.1.1 Structure of Li2FeSiO4
        2. 6.3.1.2 Preparation of Li2FeSiO4
        3. 6.3.1.3 Electrochemical Performance of Li2FeSiO4 and Its Modifications
      2. 6.3.2 Structure, Synthesis, and Performance of Li2MnSiO4
        1. 6.3.2.1 Structure of Li2MnSiO4
        2. 6.3.2.2 Preparation of Li2MnSiO4
        3. 6.3.2.3 Electrochemical Performance of Li2MnSiO4 and Its Modification
    4. 6.4 Fluorosulfates
      1. 6.4.1 Structures of LiFeSO4F
      2. 6.4.2 Preparation of LiFeSO4F
      3. 6.4.3 Electrochemical Performance of LiFeSO4F and Its Modification
    5. 6.5 Borates
      1. 6.5.1 LiFeBO3
        1. 6.5.1.1 Structure of LiFeBO3
        2. 6.5.1.2 Preparation of LiFeBO3
        3. 6.5.1.3 Electrochemical Performance of LiFeBO3 and Its Modification
      2. 6.5.2 Structure, Synthesis, and Performance of LiMnBO3
        1. 6.5.2.1 Structure of LiMnBO3
        2. 6.5.2.2 Preparation of LiMnBO3
        3. 6.5.2.3 Electrochemical Performance of LiMnBO3 and Its Modification
    6. 6.6 Titanates
      1. 6.7.1 Structure of V2O5
      2. 6.7.2 Preparation of V2O5
      3. 6.7.3 Electrochemical Performance of V2O5 and Its Modification
    7. 6.8 Other Oxides
    8. References
  11. Chapter 7 - Negative Electrode Materials Based on Carbon
    1. 7.1 Classification and Structures of Carbon Materials
    2. 7.2 Preparation Processes for Carbon Materials
      1. 7.2.1 The Carbonization Process
      2. 7.2.2 Graphitization Process
      3. 7.2.3 Preparation of CNTs
      4. 7.2.4 Preparation of Graphene
    3. 7.3 Some Physical Properties of Carbon Materials
      1. 7.3.1 Typical Characteristics of Carbon Materials
      2. 7.3.2 Raman Spectra of the Graphite Crystal
      3. 7.3.3 Surface Structure of Carbon Materials
    4. 7.4 Electrochemical Performance of Graphitic Carbon Materials
      1. 7.4.1 Interface between Carbon Materials and Electrolytes
      2. 7.4.2 Electrochemical Performance of Graphite as Negative Electrode Material
        1. 7.4.2.1 Natural Graphite as Negative Electrode Material
        2. 7.4.2.2 Exfoliation of Natural Graphite
        3. 7.4.2.3 Some Factors Affecting the Electrochemical Performance of Natural Graphite
      3. 7.4.3 Graphitic MCMBs as a Negative Electrode Material
        1. 7.4.3.1 Preparation of MCMBs
        2. 7.4.3.2 Physical Properties of MCMB
        3. 7.4.3.3 Electrochemical Performance of Graphitic MCMB
      4. 7.4.4 Graphitic Carbon Fibers
        1. 7.4.4.1 Microstructure of Carbon Fibers
        2. 7.4.4.2 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Fibers
      5. 7.4.5 General Properties of Graphitic Carbons
      6. 7.5.1 Pyrolytic Carbons from Small Molecules
      7. 7.5.2 Polymeric Carbons
        1. 7.5.2.1 Pyrolysis Process for Polymeric Carbons
        2. 7.5.2.2 Properties of Polymeric Carbons
      8. 7.5.3 Other Carbons Obtained by Low Heat Treatment
      9. 7.5.4 General Properties of Amorphous Carbons
      10. 7.5.5 Lithium Storage Mechanisms for Amorphous Carbons
    5. 7.6 CNTs and Graphene as Negative Electrode Materials
      1. 7.6.1 Electrochemical Performance of CNTs as Negative Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
      2. 7.6.2 Electrochemical Performance of Graphene as Negative Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
      3. 7.7.1 Introduction of Nonmetal Elements
      4. 7.7.2 Introduction of Metallic Elements
      5. 7.7.3 Surface Treatment
        1. 7.7.3.1 Fluorination and Mild Oxidation
        2. 7.7.3.2 Deposition of Metals and Metal Oxides
        3. 7.7.3.3 Coating with Polymers
        4. 7.7.3.4 Coating with Other Forms of Carbon
        5. 7.7.3.5 Coating with Organic Compounds
      6. 7.7.4 Mechanochemical Methods
        1. 7.7.4.1 Effects of Mechanochemical Methods on Carbon Materials
        2. 7.7.4.2 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Materials after Mechanochemical Treatment
      7. 7.7.5 Other Methods
    6. 7.8 Some Primary Materials and Products
    7. References
  12. Chapter 8 - Noncarbon Negative Electrode Materials
    1. 8.1 Titanium Oxides
      1. 8.1.1 Spinel Li4Ti5O12
        1. 8.1.1.1 Heteroatom Doping for Li4Ti5O12
        2. 8.1.1.2 Coating Li4Ti5O12
        3. 8.1.1.3 Modification of Preparation Methods for Li4Ti5O12
      2. 8.1.2 TiO2 as Negative Electrode
        1. 8.1.2.1 Anatase TiO2
        2. 8.1.2.2 Rutile TiO2
        3. 8.1.2.3 B-Type TiO2
    2. 8.2 Si-Based Materials
      1. 8.2.1 Silicon and Its Composites
      2. 8.2.2 Silicon-Based Alloys and Silicides
    3. 8.3 Sn-Based Materials
      1. 8.3.1 Tin Oxides
      2. 8.3.2 Tin-Based Alloys
      3. 8.3.3 Sn-Based Compounds
    4. 8.4 Ge-Based Materials
    5. 8.5 Sb-Based Materials
    6. 8.6 Phosphides
    7. 8.7 Nano-Oxides
      1. 8.7.1 Vanadium Oxides
      2. 8.7.2 NiO
      3. 8.7.3 MoO2
      4. 8.7.4 Other Oxides
    8. 8.8 Nitrides
    9. 8.9 Other Negative Electrode Materials
    10. References
  13. Chapter 9 - Liquid Electrolytes
    1. 9.1 Solvents for Liquid Electrolytes
    2. 9.2 Lithium Salts for Liquid Electrolytes
    3. 9.3 Principles of Ionic Conduction
    4. 9.4 Electrochemical Properties of Some Liquid Electrolytes
      1. 9.4.1 Electrochemical Window
      2. 9.4.2 Reactions with the Electrodes
      3. 9.4.3 PC-Based Electrolytes
      4. 9.4.4 EC-Based Electrolytes
      5. 9.4.5 Electrolytes with Other Solvents
    5. 9.5 Processes for the Manufacture of Liquid Electrolytes
      1. 9.5.1 Manufacture and Purification of Solvents
        1. 9.5.1.1 Synthesis of EC
        2. 9.5.1.2 Synthesis of Linear Carbonates
      2. 9.5.2 Manufacturing and Purification Processes for Lithium Salts
        1. 9.5.2.1 Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)
        2. 9.5.2.2 Lithium Bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB)
        3. 9.5.2.3 Lithium Difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB)
        4. 9.5.2.4 Other Organic Electrolyte Salts
      3. 9.5.3 Mixing Processes to Produce Liquid Electrolytes
    6. 9.6 Modification of Liquid Electrolytes
      1. 9.6.1 Improvement of Overcharging Endurance
      2. 9.6.2 Flame Retardants
      3. 9.6.3 Improvement of the SEI Film
      4. 9.6.4 Reducing the HF Content
      5. 9.6.5 Increasing Ionic Conductivity
      6. 9.6.6 Improving Low-Temperature Performance
    7. 9.7 Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes
      1. 9.7.1 Classification of ILs
      2. 9.7.2 Preparation of ILs
      3. 9.7.3 Some Physicochemical Properties of ILs
        1. 9.7.3.1 Melting Point
        2. 9.7.3.2 Thermal Stability
        3. 9.7.3.3 Density
        4. 9.7.3.4 Viscosity
        5. 9.7.3.5 Conductivity
        6. 9.7.3.6 Electrochemical Window
      4. 9.7.4 Electrochemical Behavior of ILs
        1. 9.7.4.1 Single Cation ILs
        2. 9.7.4.2 Dicationic ILs
    8. 9.8 Some Electrolyte Products
    9. References
  14. Chapter 10 - Solid Electrolytes
    1. 10.1 Inorganic Solid Electrolytes
    2. 10.2 Ion Conduction in Solid Inorganic Electrolytes
    3. 10.3 Oxide Glass Electrolytes
    4. 10.4 Sulfide Glass Electrolytes
    5. 10.5 Polymer Electrolytes
      1. 10.5.1 Classification of Polymer Electrolytes
      2. 10.5.2 Phase Structures of Polymer Electrolytes
      3. 10.5.3 Mechanisms of Ionic Conduction in Polymer Electrolytes
    6. 10.6 PEO-Based Polymer Electrolytes
      1. 10.6.1 Blending with Other Polymers
      2. 10.6.2 Forming Copolymers
        1. 10.6.2.1 Forming Random Copolymers
        2. 10.6.2.2 Forming Block Copolymers
        3. 10.6.2.3 Forming Comb-Like Copolymers
      3. 10.6.3 Forming Cross-Linked Polymers
      4. 10.6.4 Forming Dendrimers
      5. 10.6.5 Varying the Lithium Salts
      6. 10.6.6 Adding Inorganic Fillers
      7. 10.6.7 Increasing the Flexibility of the Main PEO Chain
        1. 10.6.7.1 Introducing Polyphosphazene
        2. 10.6.7.2 Adding Polysiloxanes
    7. 10.7 PAN-Based Polymer Electrolytes
    8. 10.8 PMMA-Based Polymer Electrolytes
    9. 10.9 Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes
    10. 10.10 Other Polymer Electrolytes
      1. 10.10.1 Composites of Polymer Electrolytes
      2. 10.10.2 Organic–Inorganic Composite Electrolytes
        1. 10.10.2.1 Polymer-in-Salt Electrolytes
        2. 10.10.2.2 Composite Electrolytes of Siloxane and Boroxane with Organic Compounds
        3. 10.10.2.3 Composites of Organic and Inorganic Electrolytes
        4. 10.10.2.4 Other Composite Electrolytes
    11. References
  15. Chapter 11 - Gelled Polymer Electrolytes
    1. 11.1 Poly(ethylene oxide)-Based Gelled Polymer Electrolytes
      1. 11.1.1 Non-Cross-Linked PEO Gel Electrolytes
      2. 11.1.2 Cross-Linked PEO Gel Electrolytes
      3. 11.1.3 Gel Polymer Electrolytes with Nanofillers
    2. 11.2 Polyacrylonitrile-Based Gelled Polymer Electrolytes
      1. 11.2.1 Interaction Mechanisms in PAN-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes
      2. 11.2.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes Based on Copolymerization of PAN
      3. 11.2.3 Gel Electrolytes Based on Cross-Linked PAN
      4. 11.3.1 Electrochemical Performance of PMMA-Based Gel Electrolytes
      5. 11.3.2 Modification of PMMA-Based Gel Electrolytes
    3. 11.4 Gel Electrolytes Based on Fluorine-Containing Polymers
      1. 11.4.1 Physical Properties of F-Containing Polymers
      2. 11.4.2 Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Gel Electrolytes Based on F-Containing Polymers
      3. 11.4.3 Modifications of the Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based on Fluorine-Containing Polymers
    4. 11.5 Polyolefin-Based Gelled Polymer Electrolytes
      1. 11.5.1 Surface Coating
      2. 11.5.2 Surface Grafting
      3. 11.5.3 Injecting Gel Electrolyte
    5. 11.6 Other Kinds of Gelled Polymer Electrolytes
    6. References
  16. Chapter 12 - Separators
    1. 12.1 Actions of Separators
    2. 12.2 Materials for Separators
      1. 12.2.1 Polyethylene
      2. 12.2.2 Polypropylene
      3. 12.2.3 Polyimide
    3. 12.3 Methods to Prepare Separators
    4. 12.4 Some Parameters for Separators
    5. 12.5 Effects of Separators on Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. 12.5.1 Effects on Assembly Process
      2. 12.5.2 Effects on Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries
      3. 12.5.3 Effects on Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries
    6. 12.6 Modification of Separators
    7. 12.7 Some Currently Available Separators
    8. References
  17. Chapter 13 - Other Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
    1. 13.1 Electronic Conductive Agents
    2. 13.2 Binders
      1. 13.2.1 F-Containing Polymers as Binders
      2. 13.2.2 SBR
      3. 13.2.3 Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose
      4. 13.2.4 Polyacrylates
      5. 13.2.5 Other Binders
    3. 13.3 Solvents
    4. 13.4 PTC Materials
    5. 13.5 Current Collectors
    6. 13.6 Case Materials
    7. References
  18. Chapter 14 - Assembly Processes for Lithium-Ion Batteries
    1. 14.1 Assembly Process for Common Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. 14.1.1 Weighing
      2. 14.1.2 Mixing Electrode Materials
      3. 14.1.3 Coating Process
      4. 14.1.4 Drying Process
      5. 14.1.5 Slitting Process
      6. 14.1.6 Rolling Process
      7. 14.1.7 Welding Process
      8. 14.1.8 Winding or Stacking Process
      9. 14.1.9 Inserting Process
      10. 14.1.10 Injecting Process
      11. 14.1.11 Sealing Process
      12. 14.1.12 Formation Process
      13. 14.1.13 Ageing and Capacity Grading
      14. 14.1.14 Testing
        1. 14.1.14.1 Testing Electrochemical Performance
        2. 14.1.14.2 Testing Safety Properties
      15. 14.1.15 Marking
    2. 14.2 Assembly Process of Polymer Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. 14.2.1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
      2. 14.2.2 Sealing Process
      3. 14.2.3 Formation Process
      4. 14.2.4 Ageing Process
    3. 14.3 Manufacturing Solid Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. 14.3.1 Preparation of Positive Electrode Film
      2. 14.3.2 Preparation of Electrolyte Film
      3. 14.3.3 Preparation of Negative Electrode Film
      4. 14.3.4 Assembling Micro-Solid Lithium-Ion Batteries
    4. 14.4 Manufacturing a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack
    5. References
  19. Chapter 15 - Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries
    1. 15.1 Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on LiCoO2
    2. 15.2 Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on LiNiO2
    3. 15.3 Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on LiMn2O4
    4. 15.4 Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on LiFePO4
    5. 15.7 Solid Lithium Batteries
    6. 15.8 Gel Lithium-Ion Batteries
    7. 15.9 Large-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries
    8. 15.10 Micro Lithium-Ion Batteries
    9. References
  20. Chapter 16 - Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries
    1. 16.1 Electronics
    2. 16.2 Power Tools
    3. 16.3 Electric Bikes
    4. 16.4 Internal-Combustion Engine Cars
    5. 16.5 Hybrid Electric Vehicles
    6. 16.6 Electric Vehicles
    7. 16.7 Military and Aerospace Uses
      1. 16.7.1 Military Applications
      2. 16.7.2 Aerospace Applications
    8. 16.8 Microelectronics
    9. 16.9 Energy Storage
      1. 16.9.1 Storage of Solar and Wind Energy
      2. 16.9.2 Smart Grids
      3. 16.9.3 Load Leveling
    10. 16.10 Other Applications
    11. References