A classic half-duplex Token Ring consists of a set of stations connected in a ring. The stations share a 4Mbps or 16Mbps bandwidth.
The physical wiring of a classic Token Ring looks like a ring of stars. Stations connect to concentrators in wiring closets.
A token circulates around the ring. A station with data to send captures the token, transmits one or more frames, and then sends a fresh token.
If early token release is used, a sender transmits a token right after the interframe gap that follows its final frame.
Frames that contain user data are called LLC frames. Frames that carry various types of protocol messages are called MAC frames.
The active monitor, which is chosen by an election process, watches over the token protocol. ...