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Lossless Information Hiding in Images by Shi-Ze Guo, Zhe-Ming Lu

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2.2. Modulo Addition–Based Scheme

The modulo addition–based robust reversible watermarking algorithm first appeared in the patent of Eastman Kodak Company applied by Honsinger et al. [4]; then Fridrich et al. [6] extended this idea to the DCT transform domain. The modulo addition idea can achieve reversibility, because the nonadaptive watermark signal can be directly subtracted from the pixel value without any loss, as long as we know the possible embedded watermark pattern and the pixel value overflow problem does not appear, and this modulo addition operation is completely reversible. In Refs. [4,6], this modulo addition mode is used for embedding authentication information into the carrier media. The watermark embedding and authentication process ...

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