4.5. Vector Quantization–Index Coding–Based Schemes

Achieving low image distortion (i.e., it reduces the suspicion of adversaries), high data embedding capacity, reversibility, and efficiency are desired by most information hiding system designers. Since no method is capable of achieving all these goals, a class of information hiding schemes is needed to span the range of possible applications. With the purpose of improving the visual quality of reconstructed images and achieving high embedding capacity and fast execution speed at the cost of a little higher bit rate, Chang et al., Wang et al., and Lu et al. propose a kind of lossless information embedding schemes for the steganographic application (i.e., secret communications) by using index ...

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