In today’s world, everything is communication.
Brands and their underlying logic are omnipresent in our public and private lives. The advent of the seemingly overpowering postmodern brand is rendering obsolete many previously efficient management tools.
In the second half of the twentieth century, most business students learned Philip Kotler’s 4Ps, which were presented as the most powerful marketing analytical scheme. In 1967, Kotler defined marketing management as “The analysis, planning, implementing and control of programs designed to bring about desired exchanges with target audiences for the purpose of mutual gain. It relies on the adaptation and coordination of Products, Price, Promotion and Place for achieving effective response.”1 This is what is commonly called the marketing mix.
The model was born in the low-tension competitive context of the 1940s, and built ...