DBSCAN

DBSCAN or Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise is a powerful algorithm that can easily solve non-convex problems where k-means fails. The idea is simple: A cluster is a high-density area (there are no restrictions on its shape) surrounded by a low-density one. This statement is generally true, and doesn't need an initial declaration about the number of expected clusters. The procedure starts by analyzing a small area (formally, a point surrounded by a minimum number of other samples). If the density is enough, it is considered part of a cluster. At this point, the neighbors are taken into account. If they also have a high density, they are merged with the first area; otherwise, they determine a topological separation. ...

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