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Magnetic Materials and 3D Finite Element Modeling by Nelson Sadowski, João A. Bastos

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6 Using Nodal EIements with Magnetic Vector Potential

6.1 INTRODUCTION

In these last 2 or 3 decades, several methods for solving 3D static and dynamic cases were put together [1, 2]. However, contrary to 2D cases, there is not a single formulation considered as”universal” and able to solve all the cases The first 3D methods were based on nodal elements but, in the late 1980s, it was observed that the precision of these formulations associated to the vector equations was, in high-frequency (HF) cases, poor and led to”spurious modes creating, obviously, difficulties for the engineering projects in that area [3, 4].

The main reason for such difficulties seems to come from the fact that nodal elements are appropriate to describe scalar quantities. ...

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