Chapter 1

Iran and Iranians

Physical Geography

Iran or Persia is located in southwest Asia. As shown in Figure 1.1, Iran shares land and sea borders with 15 countries; land borders with seven countries namely Armenia (35 km), Azerbaijan (611 km), Turkmenistan (992 km), Turkey (499 km), Iraq (1,458 km), Afghanistan (936 km), and Pakistan (909 km); and sea borders with eight countries including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman in the Persian Gulf and Kazakhstan and Russia in the Caspian Sea.1 With an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers, Iran is ranked 16th in size among the countries of the world. Iran is highly diverse, especially in topography and climate. ...

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