Whether it stems from a business opportunity or out of necessity, a project is an emergent process. Its seed takes root in vitro, nurtured in the hearts and minds of a few people. It is subsequently “projected,” in situ, by principals who will provide the necessary resources and formulate a mandate. The project then becomes visible to the outside world when it is implemented, in vivo, by agents. Some of the same people may be involved in its various phases such as design and implementation, or in mobilizing the necessary resources. This process is iterative, not linear.

In previous chapters, we looked at projects from a rational perspective, embodied in the mandate, and then from a political perspective, ...

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