Managers engage in three highly interrelated core activities as they perform management work: strategizing, designing, and leading (see Figure 1.3). When managers, often with the involvement of others, establish the desired results to be achieved through a program or project and conceptualize the means of accomplishing the results, they are strategizing. Through strategizing, managers establish the desired outputs, outcomes, and impact for a program or project (as shown in Figure 1.1) and develop appropriate operational plans to accomplish them.

Through strategizing activities, managers lay a foundation for ...

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