Discussed under individual change are cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes. Some R&D organization-related examples are also provided for these types of changes.

13.4.1. Cognitive Change

Individuals often need new ways of thinking or new cognitive skills—for example, how to analyze particular technical problems. In research settings this is particularly common, since new techniques in laboratory work, or new developments in mathematics, or perhaps the scientist's discipline may require learning. Seminars, courses, and workshops are often used for such training. The lecture is one of the main methods of delivering cognitive information, but guided reading, working with a model that can demonstrate the new skills, ...

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