While P behaviors of the leader are needed, most leaders do P, but many do not do enough M. M behaviors are especially important in R&D labs. However, subordinates still require a certain amount of guidance from the manager; otherwise their activities will become unrelated to the needs of the organization. Pelz and Andrews (1966a, b) have shown that when there is either excessive or insufficient autonomy, the contributions of the professional to the research organization are minimal. An intermediate amount of autonomy provides optimal conditions for the professional. Only then can the contributions of the scientist to the organization be maximized.

Some R&D managers feel that administration is just paper-pushing ...

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