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Managing by Henry Mintzberg

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1 See Noordegraaf (2005) on the interplay of sector, size of organization, form of organization, and temporal pressures in a study of Dutch health care executives.

2 McCall (1977), who came to a similar conclusion (especially about leadership style), explained it this way: “it is a mistake for leaders or researchers to assume that the ‘situation’ is comprised of a small number of fixed parts. The organization, and its environment, are dynamic. An act of Congress, a new invention, or new corporate president may change all existing cause and effect relationships overnight.” Kaplan suggested a similar reason: “The dilemma is that the more abstract we make a theory of the job in order for it to encompass the wide range of instances of it, the further ...

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