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Manned Spacecraft Design Principles

Book Description

Manned Spacecraft Design Principles presents readers with a brief, to-the-point primer that includes a detailed introduction to the information required at the preliminary design stage of a manned space transportation system.

In the process of developing the preliminary design, the book covers content not often discussed in a standard aerospace curriculum, including atmospheric entry dynamics, space launch dynamics, hypersonic flow fields, hypersonic heat transfer, and skin friction, along with the economic aspects of space flight.

Key concepts relating to human factors and crew support systems are also included, providing users with a comprehensive guide on how to make informed choices from an array of competing options. The text can be used in conjunction with Pasquale Sforza's, Commercial Aircraft Design Principles to form a complete course in Aircraft/Spacecraft Design.

  • Presents a brief, to-the-point primer that includes a detailed introduction to the information required at the preliminary design stage of a manned space transportation system
  • Involves the reader in the preliminary design of a modern manned spacecraft and associated launch vehicle
  • Includes key concepts relating to human factors and crew support systems
  • Contains standard, empirical, and classical methods in support of the design process
  • Culminates in the preparation of a professional quality design report

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Introduction and Outline of a Spacecraft Design Report
    1. I.1 Subjects Covered
    2. I.2 An Approach for a Design Course
    3. I.3 Suggestions for Report Preparation
  7. Chapter 1. Manned Spaceflight
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Where Space Begins
    3. 1.2 Staying in Space
    4. 1.3 Getting into Space
    5. 1.4 The First Fifty Years of Human Spaceflight
    6. 1.5 The Near Future of Human Spaceflight
    7. 1.6 Nomenclature
    8. References
  8. Chapter 2. Earth’s Atmosphere
    1. Abstract
    2. 2.1 The Atmospheric Environment
    3. 2.2 Equation of State and Hydrostatic Equilibrium
    4. 2.3 The 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere Model
    5. 2.4 Flow Properties Using the Atmospheric Models
    6. 2.5 Tables of Atmospheric Properties
    7. 2.6 Other Model Atmospheres
    8. 2.7 Nomenclature
    9. References
  9. Chapter 3. The Space Environment
    1. Abstract
    2. 3.1 Gravitational Effects
    3. 3.2 Gas Density and Drag Effects
    4. 3.3 The Sun
    5. 3.4 The Magnetic Field
    6. 3.5 Van Allen Radiation Belts
    7. 3.6 The Ionosphere
    8. 3.7 Meteoroids and Orbital Debris
    9. 3.8 Spacecraft Charging
    10. 3.9 Useful Constants, Acronyms, and Conversions
    11. 3.10 Nomenclature
    12. References
  10. Chapter 4. Manned Hypersonic Missions in the Atmosphere
    1. Abstract
    2. 4.1 Transatmospheric Manned Missions
    3. 4.2 Transatmospheric Vehicles
    4. 4.3 Flight Trajectories in the Atmosphere
    5. 4.4 Reusable Spaceplane Design Issues
    6. 4.5 Transatmospheric Flight Missions in the Near Future
    7. 4.6 Nomenclature
    8. References
  11. Chapter 5. Orbital Mechanics
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1 Space Mission Geometry
    3. 5.2 Energy and Angular Momentum in Orbits
    4. 5.3 Orbital Transfer for Atmospheric Entry
    5. 5.4 The Ground Track of an Orbit
    6. 5.5 The Spacecraft Horizon
    7. 5.6 Interplanetary Trajectories
    8. 5.7 Constants and Conversion Factors
    9. 5.8 Nomenclature
    10. References
  12. Chapter 6. Atmospheric Entry Mechanics
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1 General Equations of Motion
    3. 6.2 Gliding Entry Trajectories
    4. 6.3 Deceleration During Entry
    5. 6.4 Heating During Entry
    6. 6.5 Ballistic Entry
    7. 6.6 Gliding Entry
    8. 6.7 Low-Speed Return and Recovery: Parachutes
    9. 6.8 Low-Speed Return and Recovery: Spaceplanes
    10. 6.9 Summary of Constants and Parameters
    11. 6.10 Nomenclature
    12. References
  13. Chapter 7. Launch Mechanics
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1 General Equations for Launch Vehicles
    3. 7.2 Thrust, Lift, and Drag for a Simplified Boost Analysis
    4. 7.3 The Nondimensional Equations of Motion
    5. 7.4 Simplified Boost Analysis with Constant Thrust and Zero Lift and Drag
    6. 7.5 Staging of Rockets
    7. 7.6 Longitudinal Stability of Launch Vehicles
    8. 7.7 General Launch Vehicle Design Considerations
    9. 7.8 Summary of Constants and Parameters
    10. 7.9 Nomenclature
    11. References
  14. Chapter 8. Spacecraft Flight Mechanics
    1. Abstract
    2. 8.1 Space Vehicle Flight Mechanics and Performance Analysis
    3. 8.2 Hypersonic Aerodynamics
    4. 8.3 Blunt Bodies in Hypersonic Flight
    5. 8.4 Slender Bodies in Hypersonic Flight
    6. 8.5 Thermodynamic Properties of Air
    7. 8.6 Dynamics of Spacecraft
    8. 8.7 Spacecraft Control Systems
    9. 8.8 Summary of Constants and Conversion Factors
    10. 8.9 Nomenclature
    11. References
  15. Chapter 9. Thermal Protection Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 9.1 Basic Stagnation Point Heat Transfer Correlations
    3. 9.2 Approximate Air Chemistry
    4. 9.3 Stagnation Point Heat Transfer
    5. 9.4 Heat Transfer Around a Hemispherical Nose
    6. 9.5 Heat Transfer Around a Spherically Capped Cone
    7. 9.6 Heat Shields for Reentry Vehicles
    8. 9.7 Heat Transfer Similarity Parameters
    9. 9.8 Heat Shield Development and Practical Applications
    10. 9.9 Constants, Conversions, and TPS Acronyms
    11. 9.10 Nomenclature
    12. References
  16. Chapter 10. Spacecraft Configuration Design
    1. Abstract
    2. 10.1 The Spacecraft Environment and Its Effect on Design
    3. 10.2 EC and LS Systems
    4. 10.3 Structure, Propulsion, Power, and Control Systems
    5. 10.4 Crew Support Systems
    6. 10.5 Nomenclature
    7. References
  17. Chapter 11. Safety, Reliability, and Risk Assessment
    1. Abstract
    2. 11.1 System Safety and Reliability
    3. 11.2 Apportioning Mission Reliability
    4. 11.3 The Reliability Function
    5. 11.4 Failure Rate Models and Reliability Estimation
    6. 11.5 Apportionment Goals
    7. 11.6 Overview of Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    8. 11.7 Top Functional Failures of Spacecraft
    9. 11.8 PRA of the Space Shuttle
    10. 11.9 Crew Flight Safety
    11. 11.10 Human Factors in Risk Management
    12. 11.11 The Weibull Distribution
    13. 11.12 Nomenclature
    14. References
  18. Chapter 12. Economic Aspects of Space Access
    1. Abstract
    2. 12.1 Elements of Spacecraft Cost
    3. 12.2 Costs of the Apollo Program
    4. 12.3 Costs of the Space Shuttle Program
    5. 12.4 Price Per Pound to Orbit
    6. 12.5 Components of Launch Cost
    7. 12.6 Cost Estimation Relations
    8. 12.7 Nomenclature
    9. References
  19. Appendix A. Hypersonic Aerodynamics
    1. A.1 One-Dimensional Flow Relations
    2. A.2 Normal Shocks
    3. A.3 Stagnation Pressure on a Body in Hypersonic Flow
    4. A.4 Oblique Shocks
    5. A.5 Small Disturbance Theory
    6. A.6 Prandtl–Meyer Expansion
    7. A.7 Conical Flow
    8. A.8 Newtonian Flow
    9. A.9 Influence of Body Shape
    10. A.10 Effects of Angle of Attack
    11. A.11 Nomenclature
    12. References
  20. Appendix B. Spaceplane Coordinates
    1. B.1 Space Shuttle Orbiter
    2. B.2 USAF/NASA X-24C
    3. B.3 North American X-15
    4. B.4 Soviet Spaceplane Bor-4
    5. B.5 Northrop HL-10 Lifting Body
    6. B.6 Hermes Spaceplane
    7. B.7 Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences HIMES Spaceplane (Japan)
    8. B.8 Estimated Lift Drag and Moment Data for Several Spaceplanes
    9. B.9 Similarities in Hypersonic Spaceplanes
    10. B.10 Nomenclature
  21. Index