“One never notices what has been done; one can only see what has to be done.”
Regardless of whether you call it a smart factory, mass customization, or Industry 4.0, there are challenges that need to be addressed. The executive summary of Germany’s Industry 4.0 report  nicely sums up the most important ones. I will discuss those challenges briefly here. Later in this book I will have a bit more to say about some of them.
Obviously there is a lot to do in this field. Standardization has to happen on many levels. First, it needs to happen on the network level, where standard protocols and interfaces are needed across all types of network technologies. In the long run, it should no longer ...