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Master Handbook of Acoustics, Sixth Edition, 6th Edition

Book Description

The most complete and current guide to architectural acoustics principles and practices

Design and construct audiophile-quality sonic environments of all sizes--from home theaters and project studios to large-scale recording studios. Thoroughly revised to include new acoustical design techniques, Master Handbook of Acoustics, Sixth Edition, explains the art and science of room acoustics and architecture by combining theoretical instruction with matter-of-fact engineering advice.

Written by renowned experts in the field and refined through several editions, this fully updated classic describes the fundamentals of acoustical properties, as well as the latest solutions to acoustical problems. Throughout, this authoritative text provides clear explanations, describes hands-on techniques, and features numerous room designs that can be built as presented, or adapted to your particular needs.

  • Understand how sound waves travel in free fields and in enclosed spaces
  • Learn how human sound perception and psychoacoustics affect room design
  • Calculate and predict reflections, reverberation times, and room modes
  • Perform acoustical measurements and site surveys, and choose construction materials
  • Design, build, and install treatment modules to optimize early reflections, reverberation, and diffusion
  • Design and build home theaters, home studios, control rooms, recording studios, and other acoustically sensitive spaces
  • Reduce HVAC noise levels, and achieve excellent sound isolation with proven wall, window, and door designs
  • Understand the acoustics of auditoriums and concert halls
  • Utilize the supplied cost-effective plans and specifications for a variety of recording and listening rooms

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Introduction
  7. 1 Fundamentals of Sound
    1. Simple Harmonic Motion and the Sine Wave
    2. Sound in Media
      1. Particle Motion
      2. Propagation of Sound
      3. Speed of Sound
    3. Wavelength and Frequency
    4. Complex Waves
      1. Harmonics
      2. Phase
      3. Partials
    5. Octaves
    6. Spectrum
    7. Electrical, Mechanical, and Acoustical Analogs
  8. 2 Sound Levels and the Decibel
    1. Ratios versus Differences
      1. Expressing Numbers
    2. Logarithms
    3. Decibels
    4. Reference Levels
    5. Logarithmic and Exponential Forms Compared
    6. Acoustic Power
    7. Using Decibels
    8. Measuring Sound-Pressure Level
    9. Sine-Wave Measurements
  9. 3 Sound in the Free Field
    1. The Free Field
    2. Sound Divergence
    3. Sound Intensity in the Free Field
    4. Sound Pressure in the Free Field
      1. Free-Field Sound Divergence
    5. Sound Fields in Enclosed Spaces
      1. Hemispherical Field and Propagation
  10. 4 The Perception of Sound
    1. Sensitivity of the Ear
    2. Ear Anatomy
      1. The Outer Ear—Pinna
      2. A Demonstration of Directional Cues
      3. The Outer Ear—Auditory Canal
      4. The Middle Ear
      5. The Inner Ear
      6. Stereocilia
    3. Loudness versus Frequency
      1. Loudness Control
      2. Area of Audibility
    4. Loudness versus Sound-Pressure Level
    5. Loudness and Bandwidth
    6. Loudness of Impulses
    7. Audibility of Loudness Changes
    8. Pitch versus Frequency
    9. An Experiment in Pitch
      1. The Missing Fundamental
    10. Timbre versus Spectrum
    11. Localization of Sound Sources
    12. Binaural Localization
    13. Law of the First Wavefront
      1. The Franssen Effect
      2. The Precedence Effect
    14. Perception of Reflected Sound
    15. The Cocktail-Party Effect
    16. Aural Nonlinearity
    17. Subjective versus Objective Evaluation
    18. Occupational and Recreational Hearing Loss
    19. Summary
  11. 5 Signals, Speech, Music, and Noise
    1. Sound Spectrograph
    2. Speech
      1. Vocal Tract Molding of Speech
      2. Formation of Voiced Sounds
      3. Formation of Unvoiced Sounds
      4. Frequency Response of Speech
      5. Directionality of Speech
    3. Music
      1. String Instruments
      2. Wind Instruments
      3. Nonharmonic Overtones
    4. Dynamic Range of Speech and Music
    5. Power in Speech and Music
    6. Frequency Range of Speech and Music
    7. Auditory Area of Speech and Music
    8. Noise
    9. Noise Measurements
      1. Random Noise
      2. White and Pink Noise
    10. Signal Distortion
    11. Harmonic Distortion
    12. Resonance
    13. Audio Filters
  12. 6 Reflection
    1. Specular Reflections
      1. Flutter Echoes
    2. Doubling of Pressure at Reflection
    3. Reflections from Convex Surfaces
    4. Reflections from Concave Surfaces
    5. Reflections from Parabolic Surfaces
    6. Whispering Galleries
    7. Standing Waves
    8. Corner Reflectors
    9. Mean Free Path
    10. Perception of Sound Reflections
      1. The Effect of Single Reflections
      2. Perception of Spaciousness, Images, and Echoes
      3. Effect of Angle of Incidence, Signal Type, and Spectrum on Audibility of Reflection
  13. 7 Diffraction
    1. Diffraction and Wavefront Propagation
    2. Diffraction and Wavelength
    3. Diffraction by Obstacles
    4. Diffraction by Apertures
    5. Diffraction by a Slit
    6. Diffraction by a Zone Plate
    7. Diffraction around the Human Head
    8. Diffraction by Loudspeaker Cabinet Edges
    9. Diffraction by Various Objects
  14. 8 Refraction
    1. The Nature of Refraction
    2. Refraction in Solids
    3. Refraction in the Atmosphere
    4. Refraction in Enclosed Spaces
    5. Refraction in the Ocean
  15. 9 Diffusion
    1. The Perfectly Diffuse Sound Field
    2. Evaluating Diffusion in a Room
      1. Steady-State Measurements
    3. Decay Beats
    4. Exponential Decay
    5. Spatial Uniformity of Reverberation Time
    6. Geometrical Irregularities
    7. Absorbent in Patches
    8. Concave Surfaces
    9. Convex Surfaces: The Polycylindrical Diffuser
    10. Plane Surfaces
  16. 10 Comb-Filter Effects
    1. Comb Filters
    2. Superposition of Sound
    3. Tonal Signals and Comb Filters
    4. Combing of Music and Speech Signals
      1. Combing of Direct and Reflected Sound
    5. Comb Filters and Critical Bands
    6. Comb Filters in Multichannel Playback
    7. Reflections and Spaciousness
    8. Comb Filters in Microphone Placement
    9. Comb-Filter Effects in Practice: Six Examples
    10. Estimating Comb-Filter Response
  17. 11 Reverberation
    1. Growth of Sound in a Room
    2. Decay of Sound in a Room
    3. Idealized Growth and Decay of Sound
    4. Calculating Reverberation Time
      1. Sabine Equation
      2. Eyring-Norris Equation
      3. Air Absorption
    5. Measuring Reverberation Time
      1. Impulse Sources
      2. Steady-State Sources
      3. Measuring Equipment
      4. Measurement Procedure
    6. Reverberation and Normal Modes
      1. Analysis of Decay Traces
      2. Mode Decay Variations
      3. Frequency Effect
    7. Reverberation Characteristic
      1. Reverberation Time Variation with Position
    8. Decay Rate and the Reverberant Field
    9. Acoustically Coupled Spaces
    10. Electroacoustically Coupled Spaces
    11. Eliminating Decay Fluctuations
    12. Influence of Reverberation on Speech
    13. Influence of Reverberation on Music
    14. Optimum Reverberation Time
      1. Bass Rise of Reverberation Time
      2. Initial Time-Delay Gap
      3. Listening Room Reverberation Time
    15. Artificial Reverberation
    16. Examples of Reverberation Time Calculations
  18. 12 Absorption
    1. Dissipation of Sound Energy
    2. Absorption Coefficients
      1. Reverberation Chamber Method
      2. Impedance Tube Method
      3. Tone-Burst Method
    3. Mounting of Absorbents
    4. Mid/High-Frequency Absorption by Porosity
    5. Glass-Fiber Low-Density Materials
    6. Glass-Fiber High-Density Boards
    7. Glass-Fiber Acoustical Tile
    8. Effect of Thickness of Absorbent
    9. Effect of Airspace behind Absorbent
    10. Effect of Density of Absorbent
    11. Open-Cell Foams
    12. Drapes as Sound Absorbers
    13. Carpet as Sound Absorber
      1. Effect of Carpet Type on Absorbance
      2. Effect of Carpet Underlay on Absorbance
      3. Carpet Absorption Coefficients
    14. Sound Absorption by People
    15. Sound Absorption in Air
    16. Panel (Diaphragmatic) Absorbers
    17. Polycylindrical Absorbers
      1. Poly Construction
    18. Bass Traps: Low-Frequency Absorption by Resonance
    19. Helmholtz (Volume) Resonators
    20. Perforated Panel Absorbers
    21. Slat Absorbers
    22. Placement of Materials
    23. Reverberation Time of Helmholtz Resonators
      1. Reducing Room Modes with Absorbers
    24. Increasing Reverberation Time
    25. Absorption Module Design
  19. 13 Modal Resonances
    1. Early Experiments and Examples
    2. Resonance in a Pipe
    3. Indoor Reflections
    4. Two-Wall Resonance
    5. Frequency Regions
    6. Room-Mode Equation
      1. Mode Calculations—An Example
      2. Experimental Verification
    7. Mode Decay
    8. Mode Bandwidth
    9. Mode Pressure Plots
    10. Mode Density
    11. Mode Spacing and Timbral Defects
      1. Audibility of Timbral Defects
    12. Optimal Room Proportions
      1. Bonello Criterion
    13. Splaying Room Surfaces
      1. Nonrectangular Rooms
    14. Controlling Problem Modes
    15. Simplified Axial-Mode Analysis
    16. Summary
  20. 14 Schroeder Diffusers
    1. Experimentation
    2. Reflection Phase-Grating Diffusers
    3. Quadratic Residue Diffusers
    4. Primitive Root Diffusers
    5. Performance of Diffraction-Grating Diffusers
    6. Reflection Phase-Grating Diffuser Applications
      1. Flutter Echo
      2. Application of Fractals
      3. Diffusion in Three Dimensions
      4. Diffusing Concrete Blocks
      5. Measuring Diffusion Efficiency
    7. Comparison of Gratings with Conventional Approaches
  21. 15 Adjustable Acoustics
    1. Draperies
    2. Absorptive Adjustable Panels
    3. Hinged Panels
    4. Louvered Panels
    5. Absorptive/Diffusive Adjustable Panels
    6. Variable Resonant Devices
    7. Rotating Elements
    8. Portable Units
  22. 16 Sound Isolation and Site Selection
    1. Propagation through Barriers
    2. Approaches to Noise Control
    3. Airborne Noise
      1. Transmission Loss
    4. Effect of Mass and Frequency
      1. Coincidence Effect
      2. Separation of Mass
    5. Porous Materials
    6. Sound Transmission Class
    7. Structureborne Noise
      1. Noise Transmitted by Diaphragm Action
    8. Noise and Room Resonances
    9. Site Selection
    10. The Noise Survey
    11. Assessment of Environmental Noise
      1. Measurement and Testing Standards
    12. Recommended Practices
    13. Noise Measurements and Construction
    14. Floor Plan Considerations
      1. Designing within a Frame Structure
      2. Designing within a Concrete Structure
  23. 17 Sound Isolation: Walls, Floors, and Ceilings
    1. Walls as Effective Noise Barriers
      1. The Role of Porous Absorbers
    2. The Mass Law and Wall Design
    3. Separation of Mass in Wall Design
    4. Wall Design Summary
    5. Improving an Existing Wall
    6. Flanking Sound
    7. Gypsum Board Walls as Sound Barriers
    8. Masonry Walls as Sound Barriers
    9. Weak Links
    10. Summary of Wall STC Ratings
    11. Floating Floors
      1. Floating Walls and Ceiling
      2. Resilient Hangers
    12. Floor/Ceiling Construction
    13. Footfall Noise
    14. Floor/Ceiling Structures and Their IIC Performance
    15. Floor/Ceilings in Frame Buildings
      1. Floor Attenuation with Concrete Layers
      2. Plywood Web versus Solid Wood Joists
  24. 18 Sound Isolation: Windows and Doors
    1. Single-Pane Windows
    2. Double-Pane Windows
    3. Acoustical Holes in Glass: Mass-Air-Mass Resonance
    4. Acoustical Holes in Glass: Coincidence Resonance
    5. Acoustical Holes in Glass: Standing Waves in the Cavity
    6. Glass Mass and Spacing
    7. Dissimilar Panes
    8. Laminated Glass
    9. Plastic Panes
    10. Slanting the Glass
    11. Third Pane
    12. Cavity Absorbent
    13. Thermal Glass
    14. Example of an Optimized Double-Pane Window
    15. Construction of an Observation Window
    16. Proprietary Observation Windows
    17. Sound-Insulating Doors
    18. Sound Locks
    19. Composite Partitions
  25. 19 Noise Control in Ventilating Systems
    1. Selection of Noise Criterion
    2. Fan Noise
    3. Machinery Noise and Vibration
    4. Air Velocity
    5. Natural Attenuation
    6. Duct Lining
    7. Plenum Silencers
    8. Packaged Attenuators
    9. Reactive Silencers
    10. Tuned Silencers
    11. Duct Location
    12. ASHRAE
    13. Active Noise Control
    14. Some Practical Suggestions
  26. 20 Acoustics of Listening Rooms and Home Theaters
    1. Playback Criteria
    2. Planning the Playback Room
    3. Acoustical Treatment of Playback Rooms
    4. Peculiarities of Small-Room Acoustics
      1. Room Size and Proportion
      2. Reverberation Time
    5. Low-Frequency Considerations
      1. Modal Anomalies
      2. Control of Modal Resonances
      3. Bass Traps for Playback Rooms
    6. Mid/High-Frequency Considerations
      1. Identification and Treatment of Reflection Points
      2. Lateral Reflections and Control of Spaciousness
    7. Loudspeaker Placement
    8. Listening Room Plan
    9. Home-Theater Plan
      1. Controlling Early Reflections
      2. Other Treatment Details
  27. 21 Acoustics of Home Studios
    1. Home Acoustics: Modes
    2. Home Acoustics: Reverberation
    3. Home Acoustics: Noise Control
    4. Studio Budget
    5. Studio Treatment
    6. Home Studio Plan
    7. Recording in the Studio
    8. Garage Studio
  28. 22 Acoustics of Small Recording Studios
    1. Ambient Noise Requirements
    2. Acoustical Characteristics of a Studio
      1. Direct and Indirect Sound
      2. Role of Room Treatment
    3. Room Modes and Room Volume
      1. Mode Analysis for Different Room Sizes
    4. Reverberation Time
      1. Reverberation in Small Rooms
      2. Optimal Reverberation Time
    5. Diffusion
    6. Noise
    7. Studio Design Example
      1. Absorption Design Goal
      2. Proposed Room Treatment
  29. 23 Acoustics of Large Recording Studios
    1. Design Criteria
    2. Floor Plan
    3. Wall Sections
      1. Section D-D
      2. Section E-E
      3. Sections F-F and G-G
    4. Studio Treatment
    5. Drum Booth
    6. Vocal Booth
    7. Sound-Lock Corridor
    8. Reverberation Time
  30. 24 Acoustics of Control Rooms
    1. Initial Time-Delay Gap
    2. Live End–Dead End
    3. Specular Reflections versus Diffusion
    4. Low-Frequency Resonances in Control Rooms
    5. Initial Time-Delay Gaps in Practice
    6. Loudspeaker Placement and Reflection Paths
    7. The Reflection-Free-Zone Control Room
    8. Control-Room Frequency Range
    9. Outer Shell and Inner Shell of the Control Room
    10. Design Criteria
    11. Design Example 1: Control Room with Rectangular Walls
    12. Design Example 2: Double-Shell Control Room with Splayed Walls
    13. Design Example 3: Single-Shell Control Room with Splayed Walls
  31. 25 Acoustics of Audio/Video Rooms
    1. Design Factors
    2. Acoustical Treatment
    3. Audio/Video Room Example
      1. Appraisal of Room Resonances
      2. Control of Room Resonances
      3. Absorption Calculation
      4. Proposed Treatment
      5. Specialized Treatment
    4. Voice-Over Booth
      1. Dead versus Live Ambience
      2. Early Reflections
    5. Live End–Dead End Voice Studio
  32. 26 Acoustics of Large Halls
    1. Essential Design Criteria
    2. Reverberation and Echo Control
    3. Air Absorption
    4. Hall Design for Speech
      1. Volume
      2. Hall Geometry
      3. Absorption Treatment
      4. Ceiling, Walls, and Floor
    5. Speech Intelligibility
      1. Speech Frequencies and Duration
      2. Subject-Based Measures
      3. Analytical Measures
    6. Concert Hall Acoustical Design
      1. Reverberation
      2. Clarity
      3. Brilliance
      4. Gain
      5. Seating Capacity
      6. Volume
      7. Spaciousness
      8. Apparent Source Width
      9. Initial Time-Delay Gap
      10. Bass Ratio and Warmth
    7. Concert Hall Architectural Design
      1. Balcony
      2. Ceiling and Walls
      3. Raked Floor
    8. Virtual Image Source Analysis
    9. Hall Design Procedure
    10. Case Studies
  33. 27 Acoustical Distortion
    1. Acoustical Distortion and the Perception of Sound
    2. Sources of Acoustical Distortion
      1. Coupling of Room Modes
      2. Speaker-Boundary Interference Response
      3. Comb Filtering
      4. Diffusion
      5. Diffusion Measurement
    3. Design Approach
  34. 28 Room Acoustics Measurement Software
    1. Acoustical Measurements
    2. Basic Analysis Instruments
    3. Time-Delay Spectrometry Techniques
    4. Maximum-Length Sequence Techniques
    5. AcoustiSoft ETF Program
      1. Frequency-Response Measurements
      2. Resonance Measurements
      3. Fractional-Octave Measurements
      4. Energy-Time Curve Measurements
      5. Reverberation Time
  35. 29 Room Optimizer
    1. Modal Response
    2. Speaker-Boundary Interference Response
    3. Optimization
    4. Theory of Operation
      1. Prediction of Room Response
      2. Optimizing Procedure
      3. Cost Parameter
    5. Optimization Procedure
    6. Results of Operation
      1. Stereo Pair
      2. Stereo Pair with Two Woofers per Loudspeaker
      3. 5.1-Channel Home Theater with Dipole Surrounds
      4. 5.1-Channel Home Theater with Matched Satellites
      5. Subwoofer
    7. Summary
  36. 30 Room Auralization
    1. History of Acoustical Modeling
    2. The Auralization Process
      1. Scattering Coefficients
      2. Receiver Characterization
      3. Echogram Processing
      4. Room Model Data
      5. Room Model Mapping
      6. Binaural Playback
    3. Summary
  37. Bibliography
  38. Appendix: Selected Absorption Coefficients
  39. Glossary
  40. Index