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Mastering Algorithms with C by Kyle Loudon

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Shortest Paths Example: Routing Tables

One application in which shortest paths play an important role is routing data between networks in an internet. Routing is the process of making informed decisions about how to move data from one point to another. In an internet, this is accomplished by propagating small sections of the data, or packets , along interconnected points called gateways. As each packet passes through a gateway, a router looks at where the packet eventually needs to go and decides to which gateway it should be sent next. The goal of each router is to propagate a packet closer and closer to its final destination.

In order to propagate a packet closer to its destination, each router maintains information about the structure, or topology , of the internet. It stores this information in a routing table. A routing table contains one entry for each gateway the router knows how to reach. Each entry specifies the next gateway to which packets destined for another gateway should be sent.

So that packets are continually sent along the best route possible, routers periodically update their routing tables to reflect changes in the internet. In one type of routing, called shortest path first routing, or SPF routing, every router maintains its own map of the internet so that it can update its routing table by computing shortest paths between itself and other destinations. Its map is a directed, weighted graph whose vertices are gateways and whose edges are connections between ...

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