A DC motor is a class of rotary electrical device that converts electrical energy into physical motion. There are numerous types of DC motors; however, in this chapter, we will look at one specific type, which is the brushed DC motor.
Brushed DC motors are used in a wide variety of applications, ranging from toys and robotics to powered windows and power tools. Some advantages of brushed DC motors are their initial low cost, simple control, and low-speed torque. The disadvantages of these motors are their high maintenance costs and low lifespan in high-intensity environments. For the prototyping and robotic projects that we normally do with the Arduino, the disadvantages of the brushed DC motors are normally not a concern.