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Mastering Concurrency Programming with Java 8 by Javier Fernández González

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The Java memory model

When you execute a concurrent application in a computer with several cores or processors, you can have a problem with memory caches. They are very useful to increment the performance of the application, but they can cause data inconsistency. When a task modifies the value of a variable, it's modified in the cache, but it's not modified in the main memory immediately. If another task reads the value of that variable before it's updated in the main memory, it will read the old value of the variable.

Other problems that may exist with concurrent applications are the optimizations introduced by the compilers and code optimizer. Sometimes, they reorder the instructions to get a better performance. In sequential applications, this ...

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