Chapter 6 The Universal Model and Metrics: Global Leadership, Cross-Cultural, and Gender Application

In the last chapter, we introduced the Stages of Development framework and some of the architecture of the Universal Model of Leadership. Here we develop the entire Universal Model of Leadership by delving more deeply into the research conducted with the Leadership Circle Profile.


The Stages of Development framework is the vertical axis of the Universal Model and the LCP. The horizontal axis of the Leadership Circle Universal Model shows the leader's Relationship and Task balance: the left half is labeled Relationship; the right half is labeled Task. If leaders effectively organize and execute to accomplish tasks, and establish great relationships, they will be effective. If leaders are ineffective on either task execution or relationship capability, their leadership effectiveness diminishes. Research backs the 1950 Ohio State leadership studies which show that no other combination of variables better accounts for a leader's effectiveness than task and relationship. This finding has never been refuted.

This forms a four-quadrant grid which underlies the Universal Model of Leadership and the LCP (see Figure 6.1).

Four quadrants of the Universal Model of Leadership are labeled as “Task Creative”, “Task Reactive”, “People Reactive” and People Creative. The center is labeled as “Identity”.

FIGURE 6.1 Four quadrants of the Universal Model of Leadership

A leader can manage people Creatively—in a way that engages, ...

Get Mastering Leadership now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience books, live events, courses curated by job role, and more from O’Reilly and nearly 200 top publishers.