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Mastering Machine Learning with R - Second Edition by Cory Lesmeister

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An overview of the principal components

PCA is the process of finding the principal components. What exactly are these?

We can consider that a component is a normalized linear combination of the features (James, 2012). The first principal component in a dataset is the linear combination that captures the maximum variance in the data. A second component is created by selecting another linear combination that maximizes the variance with the constraint that its direction is perpendicular to the first component. The subsequent components (equal to the number of variables) would follow this same rule.

A couple of things here. This definition describes the linear combination, which is one of the key assumptions in PCA. If you ever try and apply ...

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