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Mastering Machine Learning with R - Second Edition by Cory Lesmeister

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Data understanding and preparation

To start, we will load these four packages. The data is in the MASS package:

    > library(caret)    > library(MASS)    > library(neuralnet)    > library(vcd)

The neuralnet package will be used for the building of the model and caret for the data preparation. The vcd package will assist us in data visualization. Let's load the data and examine its structure:

    > data(shuttle)    > str(shuttle)    'data.frame':256 obs. of  7 variables:     $ stability: Factor w/ 2 levepicels "stab","xstab": 2 2 2 2 2 2 2               2 2 2 ...     $ error    : Factor w/ 4 levels "LX","MM","SS",..: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1               1 1 ...     $ sign     : Factor w/ 2 levels "nn","pp": 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 ...     $ wind     : Factor w/ 2 levels "head","tail": 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2               ...     $ magn ...

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