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Mastering R for Quantitative Finance by Edina Berlinger, Ferenc Illés, Milán Badics, Ádám Banai, Gergely Daróczi, Barbara Dömötör, Gergely Gabler, Dániel Havran, Péter Juhász, István Margitai, Balázs Márkus, Péter Medvegyev, Julia Molnár, Balázs Árpád Szűcs, Ágnes Tuza, Tamás Vadász, Kata Váradi, Ágnes Vidovics-Dancs

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Exotic options embedded in structured products

Most of the time, exotic options are traded in camouflage; they are embedded in structured bonds or certificates. The exotic behavior is translated into a much more user-friendly language that is easier to understand by an everyday investor. For example, a binary payout can be calculated into a coupon yield; the investor gets a higher coupon if the circumstances let the binary option give its payout. A structure that includes a knock-out option could be called an airbag certificate, since as far as a long KO option is not knocked-out, it gives some protection against market losses, similar to an airbag that protects the driver in case of a less serious accident.

Another example is a turbo certificate, ...

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