To
Penelope, Serif, Sophie, Eamon, Hisham, Nadia, and Nadine
vii
Contents
Preface to the Third Edition ...................................................................................xix
Preface to the Second Edition .................................................................................xxi
Author .................................................................................................................. xxiii
Chapter 1 Product Design and Development in the Industrial Enterprise ............1
1.1 Introduction ...............................................................................1
1.2 Feasibility Study, Identication of Needs, and Concept
Selection ....................................................................................2
1.2.1 Market Research ...........................................................2
1.2.2 Customer Needs and Product Specications ...............2
1.2.3 Concept Generation, Screening, and Selection ............5
1.2.4 Economic Analysis .......................................................5
1.2.5 Selecting an Optimum Solution ...................................5
1.3 System-Level Design ................................................................. 9
1.4 Detail Design and Selection of Materials and Processes ........ 12
1.4.1 Conguration (Embodiment) Design .........................12
1.4.2 Final Detail Design ....................................................13
1.4.3 Design Reviews ..........................................................13
1.5 Testing and Renement ...........................................................13
1.6 Launching the Product ............................................................ 14
1.6.1 Project Planning and Scheduling ............................... 14
1.6.2 Manufacturing ............................................................15
1.6.3 Quality Control........................................................... 16
1.6.4 Packaging ................................................................... 17
1.6.5 Marketing ................................................................... 17
1.6.6 After-Sales Service ..................................................... 17
1.7 Selling the Product .................................................................. 17
1.7.1 Cost of Product Engineering ...................................... 18
1.7.2 Actual Manufacturing Cost ........................................ 18
1.7.3 Sales Expense and Administrative Cost .....................20
1.7.4 Selling Price ...............................................................20
1.8 Planning for Retirement of the Product and
Environmental Considerations ................................................20
1.8.1 Recycling of Materials ...............................................20
1.8.2 Sources of Materials for Recycling ............................ 21
1.8.3 Infrastructure for Recycling Packaging Materials .....22
1.8.4 Sorting ........................................................................ 22
1.8.5 Scrap Processing ........................................................23
1.8.6 Recyclability of Materials ..........................................24
1.9 Product Market Cycle .............................................................. 24
viii Contents
1.10 Summary .................................................................................25
Review Questions ...............................................................................26
Bibliography and Further Readings ...................................................27
PART I Performance of Materials in Service
Chapter 2 Failure under Mechanical Loading .................................................... 33
2.1 Introduction .............................................................................33
2.2 Types of Mechanical Failures.................................................. 33
2.3 Fracture Toughness and Fracture Mechanics ..........................34
2.3.1 Flaw Detection ...........................................................35
2.3.2 Fracture Toughness of Materials ................................36
2.4 Ductile and Brittle Fractures ...................................................40
2.4.1 Ductile Fractures ........................................................ 40
2.4.2 Brittle Fractures .......................................................... 41
2.4.3 Ductile–Brittle Transition ..........................................43
2.4.4 Design and Manufacturing Considerations ................45
2.5 Fatigue Failures .......................................................................45
2.5.1 Types of Fatigue Loading ...........................................48
2.5.2 Fatigue Strength .........................................................49
2.5.3 Crack Initiation ...........................................................50
2.5.4 Crack Propagation ...................................................... 51
2.6 Elevated-Temperature Failures ................................................ 52
2.6.1 Creep .......................................................................... 53
2.6.2 Combined Creep and Fatigue .....................................55
2.6.3 Thermal Fatigue ......................................................... 55
2.7 Failure Analysis: Experimental Methods ................................56
2.8 Failure Analysis: Analytical Techniques .................................57
2.8.1 Root Cause Analysis ..................................................57
2.8.2 Fault Tree Analysis .....................................................58
2.8.3 Failure Logic Model ................................................... 63
2.8.4 Failure Experience Matrix .........................................64
2.8.5 Expert Systems ........................................................... 65
2.9 Failure Prevention at the Design Stage ....................................65
2.10 Failure Mode Effect Analysis ..................................................66
2.11 Summary .................................................................................68
Review Questions ...............................................................................68
Bibliography and Further Readings ...................................................69
Chapter 3 Corrosion, Wear, and Degradation of Materials ................................ 71
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 71
3.2 Electrochemical Principles of Metallic Corrosion ..................72
ixContents
3.3 Types of Metallic Corrosion ....................................................73
3.3.1 General Corrosion ......................................................76
3.3.2 Galvanic Corrosion ....................................................76
3.3.3 Crevice Corrosion .......................................................77
3.3.4 Pitting Corrosion ........................................................78
3.3.5 Intergranular Corrosion ..............................................78
3.3.6 Selective Leaching .....................................................80
3.4 Combined Action of Stress and Corrosion .............................. 80
3.4.1 Stress Corrosion Cracking ..........................................80
3.4.2 Corrosion Fatigue ....................................................... 81
3.4.3 Erosion Corrosion .......................................................82
3.4.4 Cavitation Damage ..................................................... 82
3.4.5 Fretting Corrosion ......................................................82
3.5 Corrosion of Plastics and Ceramics .........................................82
3.5.1 Corrosion of Plastics ..................................................83
3.5.2 Corrosion of Ceramics ...............................................84
3.6 Oxidation of Materials ............................................................84
3.6.1 Oxidation of Metals ....................................................84
3.6.2 Oxidation of Plastics ..................................................87
3.6.3 Oxidation of Ceramics ...............................................87
3.7 Corrosion Control .................................................................... 87
3.7.1 Galvanic Protection .................................................... 87
3.7.2 Inhibitors ....................................................................89
3.8 Wear Failures ...........................................................................89
3.8.1 Adhesive Wear............................................................90
3.8.2 Abrasive, Erosive, and Cavitation Wear .....................92
3.8.3 Surface Fatigue ...........................................................92
3.8.4 Lubrication .................................................................92
3.9 Radiation Damage ...................................................................94
3.9.1 Radiation Damage by Electromagnetic Radiation .....94
3.9.2 Radiation Damage by Particles ..................................95
3.10 Summary .................................................................................95
Review Questions ...............................................................................96
Bibliography and Further Readings ...................................................96
Chapter 4 Selection of Materials to Resist Failure .............................................99
4.1 Introduction .............................................................................99
4.2 Grouping and Identifying Engineering Materials ................... 99
4.2.1 Classication and Designation of Engineering
Materials .....................................................................99
4.2.2 Considerations in Material Selection .......................100
4.3 Selection of Materials for Static Strength .............................100
4.3.1 Aspects of Static Strength ........................................ 100
4.3.2 Level of Strength ...................................................... 101
4.3.3 Load-Carrying Capacity .......................................... 101

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