x Contents
4.4 Selection of Materials for Stiffness ....................................... 104
4.4.1 Effect of Material Stiffness on Deection under
Load ..........................................................................104
4.4.2 Specic Stiffness ......................................................107
4.4.3 Effect of Material Stiffness on Buckling Strength ...... 108
4.5 Selection of Materials for Higher Toughness ........................ 110
4.5.1 Metallic Materials .................................................... 110
4.5.2 Plastics and Composites ........................................... 114
4.5.3 Ceramics ................................................................... 115
4.6 Selection of Materials for Fatigue Resistance ....................... 115
4.6.1 Steels and Cast Irons ................................................ 117
4.6.2 Nonferrous Alloys .................................................... 118
4.6.3 Plastics ...................................................................... 118
4.6.4 Composite Materials ................................................ 118
4.7 Selection of Materials for High-Temperature Resistance ...... 119
4.7.1 Creep Resistance of Metals ...................................... 119
4.7.2 Performance of Plastics at High Temperatures ........ 120
4.7.3 Widely Used Materials for High-Temperature
Applications ..............................................................120
4.7.3.1 Room Temperature to 150°C (300°F).......120
4.7.3.2 150°C–400°C (300°F750°F) .................. 121
4.7.3.3 400°C600°C (750°F1100°F)................. 121
4.7.3.4 600°C1000°C (1100°F–1830°F) .............122
4.7.3.5 1000°C (1830°F) and Above .....................123
4.7.4 Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten ........................... 123
4.7.5 Ceramics ...................................................................123
4.8 Selection of Materials for Corrosion Resistance ................... 126
4.8.1 Corrosive Medium Parameters .................................126
4.8.2 Design Parameters ....................................................127
4.8.3 Material Parameters ................................................. 127
4.8.4 Carbon Steels and Cast Irons ...................................127
4.8.5 Stainless Steel ...........................................................127
4.8.6 Nickel .......................................................................129
4.8.7 Copper ...................................................................... 130
4.8.8 Tin ............................................................................ 130
4.8.9 Lead .......................................................................... 130
4.8.10 Aluminum ................................................................ 130
4.8.11 Titanium ................................................................... 131
4.8.12 Tantalum and Zirconium .......................................... 132
4.8.13 Metallic Glasses ....................................................... 132
4.8.14 Plastics and Fiber-Reinforced Plastics ..................... 132
4.8.15 Ceramic Materials .................................................... 133
4.8.16 Other Means of Resisting Corrosion ........................ 133
4.9 Coatings for Protection against Corrosion ............................ 133
4.9.1 Metallic Coatings .....................................................134
xiContents
4.9.2 Organic Coatings ......................................................134
4.9.3 Vitreous Enamels .....................................................134
4.10 Selection of Materials for Wear Resistance........................... 136
4.10.1 Wear Resistance of Steels ........................................ 137
4.10.2 Wear Resistance of Cast Irons.................................. 138
4.10.3 Nonferrous Alloys for Wear Applications ................ 138
4.10.4 Wear Resistance of Plastics ......................................139
4.10.5 Wear Resistance of Ceramics ................................... 140
4.11 Wear-Resistant Coatings........................................................140
4.12 Summary ............................................................................... 141
Review Questions ............................................................................. 142
Bibliography and Further Readings ................................................. 144
PART II Relationships between Design, Materials,
and Manufacturing Processes
Chapter 5 Nature of Engineering Design .......................................................... 149
5.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 149
5.2 General Considerations in Engineering Design .................... 150
5.2.1 Human Factors .........................................................150
5.2.2 Industrial Design, Esthetic, and Marketing
Considerations .......................................................... 151
5.2.3 Environmental Considerations ................................. 151
5.2.4 Functional Requirements ......................................... 152
5.3 Design for Six Sigma ............................................................. 152
5.4 Major Phases of Design ......................................................... 153
5.4.1 Preliminary and Conceptual Design ........................ 155
5.4.2 Conguration (Embodiment) Design ....................... 155
5.4.3 Detail (Parametric) Design ......................................156
5.5 Environmentally Responsible Design ................................... 157
5.6 Design Codes and Standards ................................................. 157
5.7 Effect of Component Geometry ............................................ 158
5.7.1 Stress-Concentration Factor ..................................... 158
5.7.2 Stress Concentration in Fatigue ................................ 159
5.7.3 Guidelines for Design ............................................... 159
5.8 Factor of Safety...................................................................... 162
5.9 Reliability of Components .....................................................164
5.10 Product Reliability and Safety ............................................... 167
5.11 Product Liability .................................................................... 169
5.12 Summary ............................................................................... 170
Review Questions ............................................................................. 170
Bibliography and Further Readings ................................................. 171
xii Contents
Chapter 6 Effect of Material Properties on Design .......................................... 173
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 173
6.2 Designing for Static Strength ................................................ 173
6.2.1 Designing for Simple Axial Loading ....................... 173
6.2.2 Designing for Torsional Loading ............................. 174
6.2.3 Designing for Bending ............................................. 175
6.3 Designing for Stiffness .......................................................... 176
6.3.1 Design of Beams ...................................................... 177
6.3.2 Design of Shafts ....................................................... 179
6.3.3 Design of Columns ................................................... 179
6.4 Designing with High-Strength, Low-Toughness
Materials ...............................................................................180
6.4.1 Fail-Safe Design ....................................................... 181
6.4.2 Guidelines for Design ............................................... 182
6.4.3 Leak-before-Burst..................................................... 183
6.5 Designing against Fatigue ..................................................... 184
6.5.1 Factors Affecting Fatigue Behavior ......................... 184
6.5.1.1 Endurance-Limit-Modifying Factors ....... 185
6.5.2 Effect of Mean Stress ............................................... 189
6.5.3 Cumulative Fatigue Damage .................................... 190
6.5.4 Other Fatigue Design Criteria .................................. 191
6.6 Designing under High-Temperature Conditions .................... 191
6.6.1 Design Guidelines .................................................... 192
6.6.2 Larson–Miller Parameter .........................................194
6.6.3 Life under Variable Loading .................................... 196
6.6.4 Life under Combined Fatigue and Creep
Loading ..............................................................196
6.7 Designing for Hostile Environments ..................................... 196
6.7.1 Design Guidelines .................................................... 196
6.8 Designing with Specic Materials (Material-Specic
Design Features) .................................................................... 197
6.8.1 Designing with Metallic Materials .......................... 197
6.8.2 Designing with Polymers .........................................199
6.8.3 Designing with Ceramics .........................................200
6.8.4 Designing with Composites ..................................... 201
6.9 Summary ...............................................................................203
Review Questions ............................................................................. 204
Bibliography and Further Readings .................................................206
Chapter 7 Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Design .................................209
7.1 Introduction ...........................................................................209
7.2 Product Manufacture in the Industrial Enterprise .................209
7.3 Classication of Manufacturing Processes ........................... 210
7.3.1 Processing of Metallic Materials ............................. 210
7.3.2 Processing of Plastic Parts ....................................... 212

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