# Appendix ASummary of Formulas

### Accumulated value of a series of deposits:

$equation$
 where: D = periodic deposit amount R = periodic interest rate n = number of periods A = accumulated value

$equation$
 where: n1 = numerator, first fraction d1 = denominator, first fraction n2 = numerator, first fraction d2 = numerator, second fraction na = numerator, answer da = denominator, answer

### After-tax return:

$equation$
 where: O = operating (pre-tax) profit T = combined federal and state tax rate (in decimal form) A = after-tax profit

### Amortization:

$equation$
 where: C = total cost M = months to amortize A = amortization per month

### Annual compounding:

$equation$

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