3 The population system

Human history is inseparably linked to changes in population size. This process is described by an increasing pace, but the speed of growth gradually slows down. Indeed, the mankind reached 1 billion in the 1820–1830s and 2 billion in 1930 (almost in a century). It took merely 30 years to arrive at the point of 3 billion, whereas 15 years were spent to reach 4 billion. Finally, population size attained 5 billion and 6 billion within 13 years and 12 years, respectively (by the end of 1999).

Spatial distribution of population in the Earth is extremely nonuniform. There are territories with very high density. On the other part, some territories appear totally unsettled. Finally, we emphasize that not only population size, ...

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