Before proceeding further it will be useful to have some idea about how the displacement **r**, velocity **v** and acceleration ** a** of a moving particle “transform” from one IF to another.

In Fig. 4.1 we have depicted two frames of reference. The first one, marked *S*, is the original inertial frame, as conceived by Newton. It is a non-rotating set of *XYZ* axes spreading to infinity from the centre *O* of the sun. The second one, marked *S*΄ is also a non-rotating frame of reference whose origin *O*΄ is moving in the *X* direction with a *constant* velocity **u** in such a way that the *X*′, *Y*′ *Z*′ axes are parallel to the respective axes of *S*, and the *X*΄ axis coincides with the *X*′axis always. The origins *O* and ...

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