B. Bell, M.D. Caversaccio and S. Weber, University of Bern, Switzerland
The three main classes of robotics in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery (telemanipulation, image-guided functional servoing, and computer numerical control) are discussed and important examples of applications are described to show both technological and clinical developments. As access to many anatomical features of the head requires very small and compact tools to accurately perform procedures, examples are give in ear surgery where manipulation of the minute ossicles requires fine, dexterous movements.
minimally invasive sargery
computer numerical control