Chapter 3

Hybrid Membrane Systems – Applications and Case Studies


The term hybrid or integrated membrane process refers to the integration of one or more membrane processes with or without conventional unit operations to increase performance depending on the type of feed and product quality required. The main goal of these systems is to increase purity. Hybrid/integrated membrane systems for several applications are illustrated in this chapter followed by detailed discussions in case studies specific to water treatment. All examples highlight the centrality of membrane technology; implicit in their performance is the physicochemical properties of each membrane and process in the integrated membrane design.


Reverse osmosis ...

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