Design, Energy and Cost Analyses of Membrane Processes
Energy consumption, product water costs and technology reliability are key parameters that determine the viability of a process. Both cost and energy for desalination, especially seawater RO, have fallen dramatically since the 1970s due to the development of higher permeability and higher performance membranes, lower operating pressure, use of energy recovery devices, more efficient pumps and well-established RO feed water treatment practices. In addition, membrane plants have proven reliable in the field with longer life and lower plant maintenance costs. Engineering analyses of typical commercialised and well-established membrane processes used for desalination and ...
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