Microcontrollers generally have built-in I/O terminals that can be directly connected to low-voltage, low-current peripherals. It is usually necessary to provide I/O ports to interface a microprocessor system to its peripherals. The ports may operate as parallel or serial interfaces. Ports may be built from TTL or CMOS logic or special ICs are available, such as the Z80 PIO and the Z80 SIO. Other I/O ports are discussed. To interface a digital system to an external analogue system there are analogue to digital converters for input to the digital system and digital to analogue converters for output. ADCs include flash converters and successive approximation converters. The DACs are represented by an R-2R converter. ...

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