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Microgrids: Architectures and Control

Book Description

Microgrids are the most innovative area in the electric power industry today. Future microgrids could exist as energy-balanced cells within existing power distribution grids or stand-alone power networks within small communities.

A definitive presentation on all aspects of microgrids, this text examines the operation of microgrids - their control concepts and advanced architectures including multi-microgrids. It takes a logical approach to overview the purpose and the technical aspects of microgrids, discussing the social, economic and environmental benefits to power system operation. The book also presents microgrid design and control issues, including protection and explaining how to implement centralized and decentralized control strategies.

Key features:

  • original, state-of-the-art research material written by internationally respected contributors

  • unique case studies demonstrating success stories from real-world pilot sites from Europe, the Americas, Japan and China

  • examines market and regulatory settings for microgrids, and provides evaluation results under standard test conditions

  • a look to the future - technical solutions to maximize the value of distributed energy along with the principles and criteria for developing commercial and regulatory frameworks for microgrids

  • Offering broad yet balanced coverage, this volume is an entry point to this very topical area of power delivery for electric power engineers familiar with medium and low voltage distribution systems, utility operators in microgrids, power systems researchers and academics. It is also a useful reference for system planners and operators, manufacturers and network operators, government regulators, and postgraduate power systems students.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Dedication
    5. Foreword
    6. Preface
    7. List of Contributors
    8. Chapter 1: The Microgrids Concept
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 The Microgrid Concept as a Means to Integrate Distributed Generation
      3. 1.3 Clarification of the Microgrid Concept
      4. 1.4 Operation and Control of Microgrids
      5. 1.5 Market Models for Microgrids
      6. 1.6 Status Quo and Outlook of Microgrid Applications
      7. References
    9. Chapter 2: Microgrids Control Issues
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Control Functions
      3. 2.3 The Role of Information and Communication Technology
      4. 2.4 Microgrid Control Architecture
      5. 2.5 Centralized and Decentralized Control
      6. 2.6 Forecasting
      7. 2.7 Centralized Control
      8. 2.8 Decentralized Control
      9. 2.9 State Estimation
      10. 2.10 Conclusions
      11. Appendix 2.A Study Case Microgrid
      12. References
    10. Chapter 3: Intelligent Local Controllers
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Inverter Control Issues in the Formation of Microgrids
      3. 3.3 Control Strategies for Multiple Inverters
      4. 3.4 Implications of Line Parameters on Frequency and Voltage Droop Concepts
      5. 3.5 Development and Evaluation of Innovative Local Controls to Improve Stability
      6. 3.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    11. Chapter 4: Microgrid Protection
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Challenges for Microgrid Protection
      3. 4.3 Adaptive Protection for Microgrids
      4. 4.4 Fault Current Source for Effective Protection in Islanded Operation
      5. 4.5 Fault Current Limitation in Microgrids
      6. 4.6 Conclusions
      7. Appendices:
      8. References
    12. Chapter 5: Operation of Multi-Microgrids
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Multi-Microgrid Control and Management Architecture
      3. 5.3 Coordinated Voltage/var Support
      4. 5.4 Coordinated Frequency Control
      5. 5.5 Emergency Functions (Black Start)
      6. 5.6 Dynamic Equivalents
      7. 5.7 Conclusions
      8. References
    13. Chapter 6: Pilot Sites: Success Stories and Learnt Lessons
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Overview of Microgrid Projects in Europe
      3. References
      4. 6.3 Overview of Microgrid Projects in the USA
      5. References
      6. 6.4 Overview of Japanese Microgrid Projects
      7. 6.5 Overview of Microgrid Projects in China
      8. References
      9. 6.6 An Off-Grid Microgrid in Chile
      10. References
    14. Chapter 7: Quantification of Technical, Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits of Microgrid Operation
      1. 7.1 Introduction and Overview of Potential Microgrid Benefits
      2. 7.2 Setup of Benefit Quantification Study
      3. 7.3 Quantification of Microgrids Benefits under Standard Test Conditions
      4. 7.4 Impact of External Market Prices and Pricing Policies
      5. 7.5 Impact of Microgrid Operation Strategy
      6. 7.6 Extension to European Scale
      7. 7.7 Conclusions
      8. References
    15. Index