18. The detected edge points seldom form closed connected boundaries
that are required for image segmentation. Therefore edge linking and
boundary refinement are usually performed to complete the object
boundary delineation process.
19. The Hough transform can fit a parameterized boundary function to
a scattered set of edge points.
20. Active contours can be used to refine boundaries that have been found
by other methods.
21. The result of image segmentation can be encoded and stored conveni-
ently either as an object label map or as a boundary chain code.
1. E Davies, Machine Vision, Academic Press, 1990.
2. KR Castleman, Digital Image Processing, Prentice-Hall, 1996.
3. R Gonzales and R Woods, Digital Image Processing, Addison-Wesley, 1992.
4. AK Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Prentice-Hall, 1989.
5. A Rosenfield, ‘‘Connectivity in Digital Pictures,’’ Journal of the ACM, 17:146–160, 1970.
6. JM Prats-Montalba
n, A Ferrer, ‘‘Integration of Colour and Textural Information in
Multivariate Image Analysis: Defect Detection and Classification Issues,’’ Journal of
Chemometrics, 21(1):10–23, 2007.
7. E Bala and A Ertuzun, ‘‘A Multivariate Thresholding Technique for Image Denoising
Using Multiwavelets,’’ EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, 8:1205–1211,
8. JC Noordam, WHAM van den Broek, and LMC Buydens, ‘‘Multivariate Image Seg-
mentation with Cluster Size Insensitive Fuzzy C-means,’’ Chemometrics and Intelligent
Laboratory Systems, 64(1):65–78, 2002.
9. F Liu et al., ‘‘Adaptive Thresholding Based on Variational Background,’’ Electronics
Letters, 38(18):1017–1018, 2002.
10. RJ Wall, ‘‘The Gray Level Histogram for Threshold Boundary Determination in Image
Processing to the Scene Segmentation Problem in Human Chromosome Analysis,’’ PhD
thesis, University of California at Los Angeles, 1974.
11. KR Castleman and R. Wall, ‘‘Automatic Systems for Chromosome Identification,’’ in
Nobel Symposium 23—Chromosome Identification, T Caspersson, ed., Academic Press,
12. KR Castleman and J Melnyk, ‘‘An Automated System for Chromosome Analysis: Final
Report,’’ Document No. 5040-30, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1976.
13. PK Sahoo, S Soltani, and KC Wong, ‘‘A Survey of Thresholding Techniques,’’ Com-
puter Vision Graphics and Image Processing, 41:233–260, 1988.
9 Image Segmentation
14. CA Glasbey, ‘‘An analysis of Histogram-Based Thresholding Operations,’’ Computer
Graphics and Image Processing, 55:532–537, 1993.
15. TW Ridler and S Calvard, ‘‘Picture Thresholding Using an Iterative Selection Method,’’
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 8(8):630–632, 1978.
16. IT Young, JJ Gerbrands, and LJ van Vliet, eds., Image Processing Fundamentals, online
book at http://www.qi.tnw.tudelft.nl/Courses/FIP/noframes/fip.html.
17. GW Zack, WE Rogers, and SA Latt, ‘‘Automatic Measurement of Sister Chromatid
Exchange Frequency,’’ Journal of Histochemistry & CytoChemistry, 25(7):741–753,
18. J Weszka, ‘‘A Survey of Threshold Selection Techniques,’’ Computer Graphics and Image
Processing, 7:259–265, 1978.
19. ME Sieracki, SE Reichenbach, and KL Webb, ‘‘Evaluation of Automated Threshold
Selection Methods for Accurately Sizing Microscopic Fluorescent Cells by Image An-
alysis,’’ Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 55(11):2762–2772, 1989.
20. CL Viles and ME Sieracki, ‘‘Measurement of Marine Picoplankton Cell Size by Using
a Cooled, Charge-Coupled Device Camera with Image-Analyzed Fluorescence Micro-
scopy,’’ Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58(2):584–592, 1992.
21. SR Sternberg, ‘‘Parallel Architectures for Image Processing,’’ Proceedings of the 3rd
International IEEE COMPSAC, 1981.
22. SR Sternberg, ‘‘Biomedical Image Processing,’’ IEEE Computer, 16(1):22–34, 1983.
23. RM Lougheed and DL McCubbrey, ‘‘The Cytocomputer: A Practical Pipelined Image
Processor,’’ Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Symposium on Computer Archi-
tecture, 1980.
24. Y Tuduki et al., ‘‘Automated Seeded Region Growing Algorithm for Extraction of
Cerebral Blood Vessels from Magnetic Resonance Angiographic Data,’’ Proceedings
of the International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,
3:1756–1759, 2000.
25. T Pavlidis and YT Liow, ‘‘Integrating Region Growing and Edge Detection,’’ IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,12(3):225–233, 1990.
26. S Zucker, ‘‘Region Growing: Childhood and Adolescence,’’ Computer Graphics and
Image Processing, 5:382–399, 1976.
27. S Chen, W Lin, and C Chen, ‘‘Split-and-Merge Image Segmentation Based on Localized
Feature Analysis and Statistical Tests,’’ Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 53(5):
457–475, 1991.
28. RA Kirsch, ‘‘Computer Determination of the Constituent Structure of Biological
Images,’’ Computers in Biomedical Research, 4:315–328, 1971.
29. D Marr and E Hildreth, ‘‘Theory of Edge Detection,’’ Proceedings of the Royal Society
of London, B 207:187–217, 1980.
30. D Marr, Vision, Freeman, 1982.
31. JK Aggarwal, RO Duda, and A Rosenfeld, eds., Computer Methods in Image Analysis,
IEEE Press, 1977.

Get Microscope Image Processing now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience books, live events, courses curated by job role, and more from O’Reilly and nearly 200 top publishers.