Formula Basics

Formulas are the building blocks of data analysis in Excel. They enable you to calculate and compare the values in cells. This section serves as a reference for users who are not familiar with Excel.

Formulas contain two basic elements: an equal sign, followed by an expression, which tells Excel what to do. You can use any combination of functions, cell references, named ranges, constants, and operators to create a formula. If Excel cannot properly evaluate your formula, an error message appears.

Excel provides a large variety of operators you can use to create formulas, most of which are the arithmetic operators; however, Excel also provides comparison operators, reference operators, and a text operator. ...

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