Appendix C. FORMULA BASICS

Formula Basics

Formulas are the building blocks of data analysis in Excel. They enable you to calculate and compare the values in cells. This section serves as a reference for users who are not familiar with Excel.

Formulas contain two basic elements: an equal sign, followed by an expression, which tells Excel what to do. You can use any combination of functions, cell references, named ranges, constants, and operators to create a formula. If Excel cannot properly evaluate your formula, an error message appears.

Excel provides a large variety of operators you can use to create formulas, most of which are the arithmetic operators; however, Excel also provides comparison operators, reference operators, and a text operator. ...

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