Maintaining File System Integrity
As part of routine maintenance, you should periodically check disks for errors. The primary tool to do this is Check Disk, which is implemented in both a graphical and a command-line version.
How File System Errors Occur
File data is stored in clusters, and the Windows operating system uses a file table to determine where a file begins and on which clusters it is stored. With FAT, the file table used is called the root directory table. It defines the starting cluster of each file in the file system. This cluster has a pointer to the second cluster, and the second cluster has a pointer to the next, and so on until you get to the final cluster used by the file, which has an EOF marker. With NTFS, an MFT is used. If ...