In all practical applications, similar to the radar, the waveguide system carries the power from the transmitter end to the input of an antenna. However, the entire waveguide system cannot be formed into one piece. Therefore, it should be constructed using many individual sections (or components), and these sections have to be connected with waveguide bends, joints, and so on. In addition to this, a variety of signal control components such as directional couplers, circulators, isolators, attenuators, phase shifters, and multiport junctions have to be used in the microwave system. For example, waveguide attenuators and phase shifters are used to control the amplitude and to shift the phase, respectively. ...