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Microwave and Radio-Frequency Technologies in Agriculture by Peter Farrell, Mohan V. Jacob, Graham Brodie

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11 Electromagnetic Survey Techniques

Electromagnetic induction technology (EMI or EM) and other soil conductive technologies (e.g. resistivity) have been used for decades to map ground conductivities in mineral exploration (Keller and Frischknecht 1966). Early application in agriculture was for salinity management in irrigated systems (Dejong, et al. 1979). There is now great interest from dry-land farming enterprises, particularly the grains industry, where the management of crops at a greater spatial resolution is now achievable (Corwin and Lesch 2003).

EM sensors only measure bulk soil electrical conductivity. Other soil properties may be inferred using EM data; however calibration of EM readings against other observed data is necessary. For ...

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