Theoretical Implications and Conclusions

This multi-method study investigated the determinants for program and portfolio management practices in organizations, and the associated roles and responsibilities of middle managers. It took a TCE perspective, and used a qualitative study with nine interviews and a Web-based survey with 242 responses to develop a framework of program and portfolio manager-related roles of middle managers, and how they are determined by an organization’s situation, given its degree of environmental turbulence and project types. The framework is shown in Table 3.

The research questions can now be answered.

Research question Q1 asked:

How do project type and organizational complexity determine the use of project ...

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