Now that we’ve covered the learning myths and superstitions, let’s dive into a category of approaches that are more controversial. In these topics, some folks claim they’re myths, but others are fervent advocates. The differences are not about the data, but about the interpretation. These confusions keep us from making the best decisions about design. Here, the goal is to create understandings that rule out the problems and provide useful recommendations.

In this section, we’ll lay out the claim and the appeal, present the counter arguments, and create a reconciliation that provides an integrative framework. This then leads us to useful practices.

To be sure, this reconciliation will not remove the controversy. There are ...

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