In the 20th century, when hands made things and we needed to manage those hands, there was time to learn. We measured the shelf-life of knowledge in months, sometimes even years. We had time to shadow someone for years to really move from apprentice to master or go to a course to learn something that you might need someday. Products and services changed slowly, and even when they did it was incremental. Disruption had not yet entered the conversation.

In the 21st-century knowledge economy, work is produced by minds and we are quickly learning how to manage them. We’ve realized that everything is changing more quickly; even the pace of change is rapidly increasing. The idea of learning something someday or soon no longer ...

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