2.4.2 The second generation (2G): 1992 19
2.4.3 The 2.5 generation (2.5G): 1996 20
2.4.4 The third generation (3G): 2000 20
2.4.5 The 3.5 generation (3.5G): 2000 21
2.4.6 The fourth generation (4G): 2002 21
2.5 Summary 22
Problems 22
Multiple-choice questions 23
Further reading 24
3 Wireless Networks 25
3.1 The need for new wireless standards 26
3.2 IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard 27
3.2.1 Physical layer 27
3.2.2 MAC layer 29
3.2.3 Frame structure 32
3.2.4 Services 32
3.3 Bluetooth 33
3.3.1 Advantages of Bluetooth 35
3.3.2 Bluetooth applications 35
3.3.3 Bluetooth protocol stack 35
3.3.4 Bluetooth tracking services 37
3.3.5 Bluetooth frame structure 38
3.4 Infrared systems 39
3.5 HiperLAN 40
3.6 The IEEE 802.16 WiMAX standard 41
3.7 Comparison of wireless technologies 42
3.8 Summary 43
Problems 44
Multiple-choice questions 44
Further reading 45
4 Logical Mobility I—Migrating Processes 47
4.1 What is a process? 47
4.2 Process migration 48
4.3 The steps in process migration 48
4.4 The advantages of process migration 52
4.5 Applications of process migration 53
4.6 Alternatives to process migration 53
4.7 Summary 54
Problems 54
Multiple-choice questions 55
Further reading 56
vi Mobile Computing
5 Physical Mobility 57
5.1 The requirements for physical mobility 57
5.1.1 Wireless communication 57
5.1.2 Mobility 58
5.1.3 Portability 59
5.2 Overview of IPv4 and IPv6 61
5.2.1 IPv4 61
5.2.2 IPv6 62
5.3 Mobile IP 62
5.3.1 Goals of mobile IP 62
5.3.2 Applicability 63
5.3.3 Mobility support in IPv4 63
5.3.4 Mobility support in IPv6 66
5.4 Cellular IP 67
5.4.1 The cellular IP access network 68
5.4.2 Routing and paging cache 69
5.5 TCP for mobility 69
5.5.1 Indirect TCP 70
5.5.2 Snooping TCP 71
5.5.3 Mobile TCP 72
5.6 Mobile databases 73
5.6.1 Design issues 73
5.6.2 Problems in mobile databases 74
5.6.3 Commercially available systems 74
5.7 The CODA file system—A case study 74
5.7.1 Cache manager Venus 75
5.7.2 Venus states 75
5.7.3 Design criteria 77
5.8 Summary 78
Problems 78
Multiple-choice questions 79
Further reading 80
6 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 81
6.1 MANET characteristics 81
6.2 Classification of MANETs 82
6.3 Technologies for ad hoc networks 83
6.4 Routing in MANETs 83
6.4.1 Traditional routing protocols 83
6.4.2 Requirements for routing protocols 84
6.4.3 Classification of routing protocols 84
6.5 Proactive routing protocolsThe DSDV protocol 85
6.5.1 Example of DSDV operation 86
6.6 Reactive routing protocols 88
Contents vii
6.6.1 Dynamic source routing (DSR) 89
6.6.1.1 Route discovery in DSR 89
6.6.1.2 Route maintenance in DSR 91
6.6.1.3 Route cache in DSR 91
6.6.2 Adaptive on-demand distance vector protocol 92
6.6.2.1 Route discovery in AODV 92
6.6.2.2 Route maintenance in AODV 93
6.7 Comparison between DSR and AODV 96
6.8 Summary 97
Problems 98
Multiple-choice questions 98
Further reading 100
7 Wireless Sensor Networks 101
7.1 Applications of wireless sensor networks 101
7.2 Differences from mobile ad hoc networks 103
7.3 Design issues 104
7.4 WSN architecture 104
7.4.1 Sensor hardware components 105
7.4.2 WSN communications architecture 105
7.5 Routing protocols for WSN 106
7.5.1 Data-centric protocols 106
7.5.1.1 Flooding and gossiping 107
7.5.1.2 Sensor protocols for information via
negotiation (SPIN) 107
7.5.2 Hierarchical protocols 108
7.5.2.1 Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy 108
7.5.2.2 PEGASIS 109
7.5.2.3 TEEN and APTEEN 109
7.5.3 Location-based protocols 110
7.6 Case study 110
7.6.1 The MICA mote 110
7.6.2 TinyOS 111
7.7 Development work in WSN 112
7.8 Summary 112
Problems 113
Multiple-choice questions 113
Further reading 115
8 Mobile Handheld Devices 117
8.1 Characteristics of PDAs 117
8.1.1 The ARM processor 119
8.1.2 Network connectivity 119
viii Mobile Computing
8.2 Palm handhelds 120
8.3 The Palm OS operating system 121
8.3.1 Memory management 121
8.3.2 Communication and networking 122
8.4 HP handhelds 122
8.5 Windows CE 123
8.5.1 Memory architecture 124
8.5.2 Memory management 124
8.5.3 Processes and threads 124
8.5.4 Scheduling 125
8.5.5 Real-time performance 125
8.6 The Windows Mobile operating system 125
8.7 Nokia handhelds 127
8.7.1 Specifications of Nokia 9210 127
8.7.2 Features 128
8.8 Symbian operating system 129
8.8.1 Design 129
8.8.2 Symbian structure 130
8.9 Summary 130
Problems 131
Multiple-choice questions 131
Further reading 132
9 The Mobile Internet and Wireless Web 133
9.1 The Web programming model 133
9.2 The WAP programming model 134
9.3 WAP protocol stack 135
9.4 Information-mode (I-mode) 136
9.5 WAP 2.0 136
9.6 WAP gateway 137
9.6.1 Push operation 138
9.6.2 Push message format
(using PAP) 140
9.6.3 Pull operation 141
9.7 Summary 141
Problems 142
Multiple-choice questions 142
Further reading 144
10 Logical Mobility II—Mobile Agents 145
10.1 Mobile agents 146
10.2 Characteristics of mobile agents 146
10.2.1 Architecture 147
10.2.2 Mobile code and agents 147
Contents ix

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